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Over a lingering lunch with a friend in the City of London some years ago, Baron David de Rothschild, the French head of the global Rothschild banking dynasty, was asked if he saw his thrusting young British cousin, Nat Rothschild, as sie sucht ihn 50 his possible successor.

The baron, a stylish figure of the old school, thought for a moment as he sipped a good vintage from the family vineyard, then replied intriguingly: ‘Well, he’s the person of this [Rothschild] generation who seems to be most comfortable in the world of high finance.’

Today, for Nat Rothschild, that glittering prize of one day becoming the family patriarch has surely disappeared for ever.

Family Feud: Nat Rothschild was once hailed as the next head of the dynasty by his cousin David

Family Feud: Nat Rothschild was once hailed as the next head of the dynasty by his cousin David

His high-flying reputation has taken a humiliating nosedive as major City players who banked on his golden-boy reputation and his illustrious family name have turned against him. He also has to face the damning prospect that cousin David, the same man who had once talked so highly of him, may have had a hand in his downfall.

Rothschild vs Rothschild? Impossible, surely, in the closely-knit international family who all trace their gilded roots back to the Jewish Mayer Amschel Rothschild setting up a bank in Frankfurt in the 1760s.

There may have been the odd business split among the Rothschilds, but as the previous head of the dynasty, Sir Evelyn de Rothschild, now in retirement at 81, declared only in 1996: ‘The first important strength of the family is unity.’ 

Head of the family: It is rumoured that David de Rothschild had a hand in the downfall of his cousin Nathanial

Head of the family: It is rumoured that David de Rothschild had a hand in the downfall of his cousin Nathanial

Certainly, there was some Rothschild unity on display yesterday. But it was directed with dismay and bemusement against lone operator Nat, 41, for the way he had allowed the family’s most precious asset — its name — to be dragged through the full glare of a public row involving mass boardroom resignations, accusations of mismanagement and allegations of missing millions.

For Nat, a close friend of Peter [Lord] Mandelson and a man accustomed to getting his own way while pursuing a lifestyle of private jets and business deals with Russian oligarchs, it is not only unedifying but a devastating setback.

In a bruising struggle, Nat Rothschild had taken on the board of a mining company, Bumi plc, that he co-founded and helped bring to listing on the Stock Exchange in 2011, with the Rothschild name helping him to personally raise £700million from investors.

Initially, shares in the firm — which he created with the influential Bakrie family, part of Indonesia’s ruling elite — soared. But then Rothschild accused the Bakries of weak control and money going missing, and demanded wholesale board changes — and the company’s value plummeted amid bitter acrimony.

The poisonous feud culminated this week in Nat’s attempt, with his mother Lady [Serena] Rothschild at his side at a shareholder meeting, to wrest back control of the company from the Bakries. He failed.

Crucially, the Bumi board had called in a merchant bank to help them and to act as their independent advisers, sort out the mess and write a report on what went wrong.

The bank? NM Rothschild, the family bank run by the French arm of the Rothschild dynasty whose chairman is Baron David. Its report, which is not published, is understood to be critical over the way the company was launched.

‘I believe it could only have been David’s decision for NM Rothschild to accept this particular job,’ says a senior City figure. ‘He could have turned it down, of course, but, in fact, the bank is seen to have taken it on with relish. 


Downfall: Rothschild has become embroiled in financial scandal and is down £50million on an £80million investment

Downfall: Rothschild has become embroiled in financial scandal and is down £50million on an £80million investment

‘David is intent on keeping the Rothschild name intact and protecting the brand as one that can be relied on in any crisis, even one involving another family member.’ 

This tenacious protection of the Rothschild brand over the years has created an extraordinary banking and financial empire with arms stretching right around the world.

From Europe to America, Australia to Singapore and Hong Kong, its network of banks and corporate finance companies operate with varying degrees of autonomy, but ultimately they all have to report back to headquarters.

This is its operating company, Rothschilds Continuation Holdings, and is to be found in the low-tax, Swiss town of Zug. Its executive chairman: Baron David de Rothschild.

To the Rothschilds, the question of leadership succession is treated almost like that of an accession to the throne in a monarchy. It is an obsession that has enabled them to keep their name above the door of the firm while other traditional City families — such as Kleinworts and Warburgs — have long since lost control to brash newcomers.

Ex-wife: Nat and Annabel Neilson divorced. the family have not approved of Nat's excessive lifestyle in the past

Ex-wife: Nat and Annabel Neilson divorced. the family have not approved of Nat's excessive lifestyle in the past

No one should underestimate how much the Rothschilds care for the reputation of their family name — and how they will preserve it through a line of succession which does not necessarily favour the eldest son.

It has always been a matter of immense family pride that the lst Baron Rothschild was created by Queen Victoria in 1885 when Jews were not universally accepted socially.

During World War II, the 3rd Baron Rothschild, Victor, a man far more interested in science than banking, served his country by working for MI5. Yet he also fulfilled his role as head of the family bank.

When Baron Victor relinquished his chairmanship on his 70th birthday in 1980, it didn’t pass to his eldest son Jacob — now Lord Rothschild and Nat’s father — as had been expected. Instead, it moved sideways to his cousin, Sir Evelyn de Rothschild, who made it plain that his successor would be David, then his deputy who comes from the French side of the family. 

Sir Evelyn told the French newspaper Le Monde: ‘If something happens to me, there is David. If something happens to him, there is Amschel.’ David took over in 2003, but the throne will never go to Amschel, Nat’s tragic uncle.

Amschel, who worked in the Rothschild bank in Paris, is said to have feared the awesome responsibility and didn’t want it. In 1996, just hours after being involved in a complicated meeting over mergers, he hanged himself in the Hotel Bristol in Paris, aged 41.

Amschel was the younger half-brother of Nat’s father, Lord (Jacob) Rothschild who was by now clearly out of the picture.

Jacob, a spirited and confident banker (some say he was passed over for the top job because he was too spirited), having lost what many saw as his birthright, cut his business links with the family.
He started his own investment trust, RIT, with spectacular success. These days, he runs a fund valued at £4billion, and is personally worth around £500million.

Family seat: A view of the south front of Rothschild's Waddesdon Manor,near Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire

Family seat: A view of the south front of Rothschild's Waddesdon Manor,near Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire

But the family split was uncharacteristic, and regretted on all sides. Union, after all, was strength.

What is more, senior family members were exasperated to find that, with Jacob’s departure, the global Rothschild empire had lost the prestige of the family peerage bestowed all those years ago.

This makes the tragedy of Nat Rothschild all the more significant. For had his career taken a different path, that family schism could have been mended. As the heir to the 128-year-old peerage, he could have brought the Rothschild title back into the family fold by becoming leader of the banking dynasty.

Now this will surely not happen. Indeed, the future leadership of the Rothschilds has already been marked out. The mann sucht frau rtl heir in-waiting  is Baron David’s only son, Alexandre, 32, who was still at college when his father talked of cousin Nat as a possible successor.

Alex is a dashing socialite with a beautiful young wife, and has started building a reputation as an astute banker.

Divorced from socialite and model Annabelle Neilson, Nat Rothschild’s life revolves largely around business —‘his mind is always turning over deals and, apart from the odd girlfriend, his closest companion seems to be his St Bernard dog’, says one friend.

Scandal: The Corfu home where Nat Rothschild entertained George Osborne and Peter Mandleson

Scandal: The Corfu home where Nat Rothschild entertained George Osborne and Peter Mandleson

Getaway: The Rothschild family estate in Agios Stefanos on the Greek island of Corfu

Getaway: The Rothschild family estate in Agios Stefanos on the Greek island of Corfu

But Alex and wife Olivia are accomplished equestrians, popular with the show-jumping fraternity. He has competed at major events from Paris to Dubai. He took jobs in other financial firms before joining Rothschild’s in 2008, working in the private equity unit.

His closest friends are younger members of the Grimaldi Royal Family of Monaco and the offspring of France’s business and political elite. Another close  confidant is John Elkann, 36, heir to Italy’s Agnelli family which own Fiat.

The plan is for Alexandre to succeed within five years, when his father will be 75. No wonder Nat’s father Lord Rothschild, 76, to whom Prince Diana often turned to for advice, has remained so gloomily silent through the entire saga.

A holder of the Order of Merit, who continues to live in London while his son has been a tax exile in Switzerland for six years, he is said to be a bitterly disappointed man at the turn of events and his son’s dwindling reputation.

Even so, by way of showing family union, Nat’s mother Lady Rothschild made sure she was there with him at the Bumi shareholders meeting on Thursday. It didn’t help. He still lost the control he’d fought so hard to win back. Shareholders would not even let him come back on the board.

Contacts: Peter Mandleson has a strong relationship with Nat Rothschild

Contacts: Peter Mandleson has a strong relationship with Nat Rothschild

As the final acrimonious exchanges of the Bumi episode ended, so did Lord Rothschild’s dream that his son and heir might one day lead the world’s most enduring banking dynasty to new heights.

He had hoped that tensions between himself and his son (he also has three daughters) were a thing of the past. 

Those tensions were never about finance, but over personal issues such as Nat’s unfettered hedonism at Oxford, and an escort girl’s story that she was asked to provide strippers and drugs to a party he threw in 1994 at Waddesdon Manor, the magnificent family seat in Buckinghamshire.

More recently, it upset Lord Rothschild that his son had not endeared himself to family members with his flashy entrepreneurial style, so different from their own discreet methods. 

The family did not like the way, for example, he celebrated his 40th birthday with a near £1million three-day bash at Porto Montenegro, a development on the Adriatic coast in which he has an investment, with invitations offering helpful details of where guests could park private jets. 

Nor were they keen on his highly publicised friendships with controversial people such as Russian oligarch Oleg Deripaska whose £80million yacht was the scene of that infamous gathering in Corfu with George Osborne and Peter Mandelson which led to Nat’s dramatic and widely reported fall-out with Osborne, an old chum.

Above all, though, they felt deeply uncomfortable at Nat’s use of the most revered name in global finance to attract investment into speculative activities. In the case of Bumi, investors are so far down by £1.4billion.

Nat himself, once the soaring freelance star of the family — doing it his way and even talked about as potentially the richest of all the Rothschilds — is down £50million on his £80 million investment.

Perhaps he has lost his touch. Who knows? Perhaps the anger of the Rothschild dynasty will force the irascible Nat to change his approach to money-making. But don’t hold your breath.

"House of Rothschild" redirects here. For the film, see. For other uses, see.

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A Rothschild house, in, Buckinghamshire, England donated to the National Trust by the family in 1957.
House of the Rothschild family, Judengasse, Frankfurt
A house formerly belonging to the Viennese branch of the family (Schillersdorf Palace).
, one of the many palaces built by the Austrian Rothschild dynasty. Donated to charity by the family in 1905.
Beatrice de Rothschild's villa on the, France

The Rothschild family is a wealthy family descending from (1744–1812), a to the German in the,, who established his business in the 1760s. Unlike most previous court factors, Rothschild managed to bequeath his wealth and established an international through his five sons, who established themselves in,,,, and. The family was elevated to in the and the.

During the 19th century, the Rothschild family possessed the largest private in the world, as well as the largest private fortune in history. The family's wealth was divided among various descendants, and today their interests cover a diverse range of fields, including financial services, real estate, mining, energy, mixed farming, winemaking and nonprofits.

The Rothschild family has frequently been the subject of, many of which have origins.

Contents

Overview

The first member of the family who was known to use the name "Rothschild" was Izaak Elchanan Rothschild, born in 1577. The name is derived from the zum rothen Schild (with the old spelling "th"), meaning "at the red shield", in reference to the house where the family lived for many generations (in those days houses were designated not by numbers but by signs displaying different symbols or colours). A red shield can still be seen at the centre of the Rothschild coat of arms. The family's ascent to international prominence began in 1744, with the birth of in, Germany. He was the son of (born circa 1710), a who had traded with the. Born in the "", the of, Mayer developed a finance house and spread his empire by installing each of his five sons in the five main European financial centres to conduct. The Rothschild coat of arms contains a clenched fist with five arrows symbolising the five dynasties established by the five sons of Mayer Rothschild, in a reference to 127: "Like arrows in the hands of a warrior, so are the children of one's youth." The family motto appears below the shield: Concordia, Integritas, Industria (Unity, Integrity, Industry).

writes "[T]he Rothschilds are elusive. There is no book about them that is both revealing and accurate. Libraries of nonsense have been written about them... A woman who planned to write a book entitled Lies about the Rothschilds abandoned it, saying: 'It was relatively easy to spot the lies, but it proved impossible to find out the truth.'" He writes that, unlike the of earlier centuries, who had financed and managed European noble houses, but often lost their wealth through violence or expropriation, the new kind of international bank created by the Rothschilds was impervious to local attacks. Their assets were held in financial instruments, circulating through the world as stocks, bonds and debts. Changes made by the Rothschilds allowed them to insulate their property from local violence: "Henceforth their real wealth was beyond the reach of the mob, almost beyond the reach of greedy monarchs." Johnson argued that their fortune was generated to the greatest extent by in London; however, more recent research by indicates that greater and equal profits also were realised by the other Rothschild dynasties, including in Paris, in Naples and in Frankfurt.

Another essential part of Mayer Rothschild's strategy for success was to keep control of their banks in family hands, allowing them to maintain full secrecy about the size of their fortunes. In about 1906, the noted: "The practice initiated by the Rothschilds of having several brothers of a firm establish branches in the different financial centres was followed by other Jewish financiers, like the,,, and others, and these financiers by their integrity and financial skill obtained credit not alone with their Jewish confrères, but with the banking fraternity in general. By this means, Jewish financiers obtained an increasing share of international finance during the middle and last quarter of the 19th century. The head of the whole group was the Rothschild family..." It also states: "Of more recent years, non-Jewish financiers have learned the same cosmopolitan method, and, on the whole, the control is now rather less than more in Jewish hands than formerly." Mayer Rothschild successfully kept the fortune in the family with carefully, often between first- or second- (similar to ). By the late 19th century, however, almost all Rothschilds had started to marry outside the family, usually into the aristocracy or other financial dynasties. His sons were:

The German family name "Rothschild" is pronounced in, unlike in. The surname "Rothschild" is rare in Germany. The German surname "Rothschild" is not related to the Protestant surname "Rothchilds" from the United Kingdom.[]

Families by country:

The five sons of Mayer Amschel Rothschild were elevated to the by Emperor, and they were all granted the Austrian hereditary title of () on 29 September 1822. The was elevated by, who granted the hereditary title of (1847) and later the title of (1885). Research conducted by GreatGameIndia Magazine has revealed that the Rothschild family was one of the controller families of the.

The Napoleonic Wars

A landmark Rothschild Palace in, Villa Günthersburg (photographed 1855)

The Rothschilds already possessed a significant fortune before the start of the (1803–1815), and the family had gained preeminence in the trade by this time. From London in 1813 to 1815, was instrumental in almost single-handedly financing the British war effort, organising the shipment of bullion to the armies across Europe, as well as arranging the payment of British financial subsidies to their continental allies. In 1815 alone, the Rothschilds provided £9.8 million (in 1815 currency, about £566 million, €717 million or US$869 million today, when using the retail price index, and £6.58 billion, €8,34 billion or US$10.1 billion when using average earnings) in subsidy loans to continental allies.

One of the smaller city houses, Vienna. A collection of far larger Viennese palaces known as were torn down during the Second World War.

The brothers helped coordinate Rothschild activities across the continent, and the family developed a network of agents, shippers and couriers to transport gold across war-torn Europe. The family network was also to provide Nathan Rothschild time and again with political and financial information ahead of his peers, giving him an advantage in the markets and rendering the house of Rothschild still more invaluable to the British government.

In one instance, the family network enabled Nathan to receive in London the news of Wellington's victory at the a full day ahead of the government's official messengers. Rothschild's first concern on this occasion was not to the potential financial advantage on the market which the knowledge would have given him; he and his courier immediately took the news to the government. It was then repeated in later popular accounts, such as that of. The basis for the Rothschild's most famously profitable move was made after the news of British victory had been made public. Nathan Rothschild calculated that the future reduction in government borrowing brought about by the peace would create a bounce in British government bonds after a two-year stabilisation, which would finalise the post-war restructuring of the domestic economy. In what has been described as one of the most audacious moves in financial history, Nathan immediately bought up the government bond market, for what at the time seemed an excessively high price, before waiting two years, then selling the bonds on the crest of a short bounce in the market in 1817 for a 40% profit. Given the sheer power of leverage the Rothschild family had at their disposal, this profit was an enormous sum.

Nathan Mayer Rothschild started his business in in 1806 and gradually moved it to, where in 1809 he acquired the location at 2 New Court in St. Swithin's Lane,, where it operates today; he established in 1811. In 1818, he arranged a £5 million (equal to £340 million in 2017) loan to the government, and the issuing of for government formed a mainstay of his bank’s business. He gained a position of such power in the that by 1825–26 he was able to supply enough coin to the to enable it to avert a crisis.

International high finance

"I have not the nerve for his operations. They are well-planned, with great cleverness and adroitness in execution – but he is in money and funds what Napoleon was in war." — on Nathan Rothschild
"... your friends at the West End have the business in their hands to decide between Portugal & Brazil and an early intimation from you may serve us materially."—Samuel Phillips & Co to Nathan Rothschild
The family financed the creation of the country, and it became the site of the first international expansion of one of their mining enterprises—the.
The Frankfurt terminus of the Taunus railway, financed by the Rothschilds. Opened in 1840, it was one of Germany's first railways.

Rothschild family banking businesses pioneered international high finance during the industrialisation of Europe and were instrumental in supporting railway systems across the world and in complex government financing for projects such as the. During the 19th century, the family bought up a large proportion of the property in, London.[]

The Rothschild family was directly involved in the of from in the early 19th century. Upon an agreement, the Brazilian government should pay a compensation of two million pounds sterling to the Kingdom of Portugal to accept Brazil's independence. was pre-eminent in raising this capital for the government of the newly formed on the London market. In 1825, Nathan Rothschild raised £2,000,000, and indeed was probably discreetly involved in the earlier tranche of this loan which raised £1,000,000 in 1824. Part of the price of Portuguese recognition of Brazilian independence, secured in 1825, was that Brazil should take over repayment of the principal and interest on a £1,500,000 loan made to the Portuguese government in 1823 by N M Rothschild & Sons. A correspondence from Samuel Phillips & Co. in 1824 suggests the close involvement of the Rothschilds in the occasion.

Major 19th century businesses founded with Rothschild family capital include:

The family funded in the creation of the African colony of. From the late 1880s onwards, the family took over control of the Rio Tinto mining company.

The Japanese government approached the London and Paris families for funding during the. The London consortium's issue of Japanese would total £11.5 million (at 1907 currency rates; £1.03 billion in 2012 currency terms).

The name of Rothschild became synonymous with extravagance and great wealth; and, the family was renowned for its art collecting, for its palaces, as well as for its philanthropy. By the end of the century, the family owned, or had built, at the lowest estimates, over 41 palaces, of a scale and luxury perhaps unparalleled even by the richest royal families. The British Chancellor of the Exchequer claimed, in 1909, that was the most powerful man in Britain.[]

In 1901, with no male heir, the Frankfurt House closed its doors after more than a century in business. It was not until 1989 that the family returned, when N. M. Rothschild & Sons, the British investment arm, plus Bank Rothschild AG, the Swiss branch, set up a representative banking office in Frankfurt.

Weekly Register, Volume 49 had the following to say about the Rothschilds influence on international high finance in 1836;

"The Rothschilds are the wonders of modern banking … we see the descendants of Judah, after a persecution of two thousand years, peering above kings, rising higher than emperors, and holding a whole continent in the hollow of their hands. The Rothschilds govern a Christian world. Not a cabinet moves without their advice. They stretch their hand, with equal ease, from Petersburgh to Vienna, from Vienna to Paris, from Paris to London, from London to Washington. Baron Rothschild, the head of the house, is the true king of Judah, the prince of the captivity, the Messiah so long looked for by this extraordinary people. He holds the keys of peace or war, blessing or cursing. … They are the brokers and counselors of the kings of Europe and of the republican chiefs of America. What more can they desire?"

Hereditary titles

In 1816, four of the five sons of Mayer Amschel Rothschild were elevated to the by Emperor. The remaining son,, was elevated in 1818. All of them were granted the Austrian hereditary title of () on 29 September 1822. As such, some members of the family used the de or before their surname to acknowledge the grant of nobility. Traditionally, a baron who received his title from the Holy Roman Emperor, or (after the dissolution of the in 1806) from the Austrian and later Austro-Hungarian Emperor, was known as a Reichsfreiherr ("Baron of the Empire"), although the title is usually shortened to Freiherr.

In 1847, was made a hereditary of the United Kingdom. In 1885, was granted the title of in the. This title is currently held by the.

British branch

Main article:

The Rothschild banking family of the United Kingdom was founded in 1798 by (1777–1836), who first settled in but then moved to. Nathan Mayer von Rothschild, the third son of (1744–1812), first established a jobbing business in Manchester and from there went on to establish bank in London.[]

During the early part of the 19th century, the Rothschild family's London bank took a leading part in managing and financing the subsidies that the British government transferred to its allies during the. Through the creation of a network of agents, couriers and shippers, the bank was able to provide funds to the armies of the in and, therefore funding the war. The providing of other innovative and complex financing for government projects formed a mainstay of the bank's business for the better part of the century. N. M. Rothschild & Sons' financial strength in the became such that, by 1825–26, the bank was able to supply enough coin to the to enable it to avert a crisis.

Nathan Mayer's eldest son, (1808–1879), succeeded him as head of the London branch. Under Lionel, the bank financed the British government's 1875 purchase of 's interest in the. The Rothschild bank also funded in the development of the. (1845–1917) administered Rhodes's estate after his death in 1902 and helped to set up the scheme at the. In 1873, in France and N. M. Rothschild & Sons of London joined with other investors to acquire the Spanish government's money-losing copper mines. The new owners restructured the company and turned it into a profitable business. By 1905, the Rothschild interest in Rio Tinto amounted to more than 30 percent. In 1887, the French and British Rothschild banking houses loaned money to, and invested in, the diamond mines in, becoming its largest shareholders.

The London banking house continued under the management of (1882–1942) and his brother (1887–1961), and then to (b. 1931). In 2003, following Sir Evelyn's retirement as head of N. M. Rothschild & Sons of London, the British and French financial firms merged under the leadership of.

French branches

Main article:

, the largest château of the 19th century, was built in 1854. It is set on a 30 km2 (12 sq mi) estate. It was charitably donated by the family to the University of Paris in 1975.

There are two branches of the family connected to France.

The first was the branch of (1792–1868), known as "James", who established in Paris. Following the Napoleonic Wars, he played a major role in financing the construction of railways and the mining business that helped make France an industrial power. By 1980, the Paris business employed about 2,000 people and had an annual turnover of 26 billion francs (€4,13 billion or $5 billion in the currency rates of 1980).

However, the Paris business suffered a near death blow in 1982, when the socialist government of nationalised and renamed it as Compagnie Européenne de Banque. Baron, then 39, decided to stay and rebuild, creating a new entity named, with just three employees and €830,000 (USD$1 million) in capital. Today, the Paris operation has 22 partners and accounts for a significant part of the global business.

Ensuing generations of the Paris Rothschild family remained involved in the family business, becoming a major force in international investment banking. The Rothschilds have since led the in Investment Banking Merger and Acquisition deals in the UK, France and Italy.

's other son, (1845–1934), was very much engaged in philanthropy and the arts, and he was a leading proponent of. His grandson, Baron, founded in 1953 the, a private bank. Since 1997, Baron chairs the group. The group has €100bn of assets in 2008 and owns many wine properties in France (, ), in Australia or in South Africa. In 1961, the 35-year-old purchased the company, after he had visited a resort and enjoyed his stay. His interest in Club Med was sold off by the 1990s. In 1973, he bought out the, selling his interests in 1984 before it was sold to in 1985.

"No kings could afford this! It could only belong to a Rothschild."

—, Emperor of Germany, on visiting.

The second French branch was founded by (1812–1870). Born in London, he was the fourth child of the founder of the British branch of the family, (1777–1836). In 1850 Nathaniel Rothschild moved to Paris to work with his uncle James Mayer Rothschild. In 1853 Nathaniel acquired Château Brane Mouton, a vineyard in in the département. Nathaniel Rothschild renamed the estate, and it would become one of the best known labels in the world. In 1868, Nathaniel's uncle, James Mayer de Rothschild, acquired the neighbouring vineyard.

Austrian branch

Main article:

,, 1845, one of the Rothschilds' many German garden-mansions. This particular estate was destroyed in an Allied bombing raid, 1944.

In, established a bank in the 1820s and the Austrian family had vast wealth and position. The crash of 1929 brought problems, and attempted to shore up the, Austria's largest bank, to prevent its collapse. Nevertheless, during the they had to surrender their bank to the and flee the country. Their, a collection of vast palaces in Vienna built and owned by the family, were confiscated, plundered and destroyed by the Nazis. The palaces were famous for their sheer size and for their huge collections of paintings,, and (some of which were restored to the Rothschilds by the Austrian government in 1999). All family members escaped the, some of them moving to the, and returning to Europe only after the war. In 1999, the government of Austria agreed to return to the Rothschild family some 250 art treasures looted by the Nazis and absorbed into state museums after the war.

Naples branch

Main article:

The C M de Rothschild & Figli bank arranged substantial loans to the and to various Kings of Naples plus the Duchy of Parma and the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. However, in the 1830s, Naples followed Spain with a gradual shift away from conventional bond issues that began to affect the bank's growth and profitability. The in 1861, with the ensuing decline of the Italian aristocracy who had been the Rothschild's primary clients, eventually brought about the closure of their Naples bank, due to a forecasted decline in the sustainability of the business over the long-term. However, in the early 19th century, the Rothschild family of Naples built up close relations with the, and the association between the family and the Vatican continued into the 20th century.[] In 1832, when was seen meeting Carl von Rothschild to arrange the (for £400,000, worth €43,000,000 in 2014), observers were shocked that Rothschild was not required to kiss the Pope's feet, as was then required for all other visitors to the Pope, including monarchs. The 1906 described the Rothschilds as "the guardians of the papal treasure".

Jewish identity and positions on Zionism

Jewish solidarity in the family was not homogeneous. Many Rothschilds were supporters of, while other members of the family opposed the creation of the Jewish state. was against granting asylum or helping Jewish refugees during the Holocaust. In 1917 was the addressee of the to the, which committed the British government to the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people.

After the death of in 1868, his eldest son took over the management of the family bank and was the most active in support for. The Rothschild family archives show that during the 1870s the family contributed nearly 500,000 francs per year on behalf of Eastern Jewry to the. Baron, youngest son of, was a patron of the first settlement in at, and bought from Ottoman landlords parts of the land which now makes up present-day Israel. In 1924, he established the Palestine Jewish Colonisation Association (PICA), which acquired more than 125,000 acres (50,586 ha) of land and set up business ventures. In, the is named after him, as are a number of localities throughout Israel which he assisted in founding, including,, Rishon Lezion and. A park in, Paris, the Parc Edmond de Rothschild (Edmond de Rothschild Park), is also named after its founder. The Rothschilds also played a significant part in the funding of Israel's governmental infrastructure. financed the building as a gift to the State of Israel and the building was donated to Israel by. Outside the President's Chamber is displayed the letter Mrs. Rothschild wrote to the then current Prime Minister expressing her intention to donate a new building for the Supreme Court.

Interviewed by in 2010,, a Swiss-based member of the banking family, said that he supported the : "I understand that it is a complicated business, mainly because of the fanatics and extremists – and I am talking about both sides. I think you have fanatics in Israel.... In general I am not in contact with politicians. I spoke once with. I met once with an Israeli frauen beim yoga kennenlernen finance minister, but the less I mingle with politicians the better I feel." Due to a dispute with the Israeli tax authorities, the baron refuses to visit Israel. But his wife often visits Israel where she manages the. She says: "It is insulting that the state [Israel] casts doubt on us. If there is a family that does not have to prove its commitment to Israel, it's ours."

Modern businesses, investments and philanthropy

Since the late-19th century, the family has taken a low-key public profile, donating many famous estates, as well as vast quantities of art, to charity, and generally eschewing conspicuous displays of wealth. Today, Rothschild businesses are on a smaller scale than they were throughout the 19th century, although they encompass a diverse range of fields, including: real estate, financial services, mixed farming, energy, mining, winemaking and nonprofits.

The Rothschild Group

Main article:

Since 2003, a group of Rothschild banks have been controlled by Rothschild Continuation Holdings, a Swiss-registered holding company (under the chairmanship of ). Rothschild Continuation Holdings is in turn controlled by Concordia BV, a -registered master holding company. Concordia BV is managed by S.A., a French-registered holding company. Paris Orléans S.A. is ultimately controlled by Rothschild Concordia SAS, a Rothschild's family holding company. controls Rothschild banking businesses in France and continental Europe, while Rothschilds Continuation Holdings AG controls a number of Rothschild banks elsewhere, including in London. Twenty percent of Rothschild Continuation Holdings AG was sold in 2005 to Jardine Strategic, which is a subsidiary of of. In November 2008, Group, the leading investment and private bank in the Netherlands, acquired 7.5% of Rothschild Continuation Holdings AG, and Rabobank and Rothschild entered into a co-operation agreement in the fields of (M&A) advisory and equity capital markets advisory in the food and agribusiness sectors. It was believed that the move was intended to help Rothschild Continuation Holdings AG gain access to a wider capital pool, enlarging its presence in East Asian markets.

S.A. is a financial holding company listed on Paris and controlled by the French and English branch of the Rothschild family. Paris Orléans is the flagship of the Rothschild banking Group and controls the Rothschild Group's banking activities including and. It has over 2,000 employees. Directors of the company include, and Count Philippe de Nicolay.

, an English investment bank, does most of its business as an advisor for mergers and acquisitions. In 2004, the investment bank withdrew from the gold market, a commodity the Rothschild bankers had traded in for two centuries. In 2006, it ranked second in UK M&A with deals totalling $104.9 billion. In 2006, the bank recorded a pre-tax annual profit of £83.2 million with assets of £5.5 billion.

"Treat the stock exchange like a cold shower (quick in, quick out)."

—A traditional family.

Edmond de Rothschild Group

In 1953, one Swiss member of the family, (1926–1997), founded the LCF Rothschild Group (now ) which is based in, which today extends to 15 countries across the world. Although this Group is primarily a financial entity, specializing in asset management and private banking, its activities also cover mixed farming, luxury hotels and. Edmond de Rothschild Group's committee is currently being chaired by, Baron Edmond's son.

In late 2010, said that the family had been unaffected by the, due to their conservative business practices: "We came through it well, because our investment managers did not want to put money into crazy things." He added that the Rothschilds were still a small-scale, traditional family business and took greater care over their clients' investments than American companies, adding: "The client knows we will not speculate with his money".

Edmond de Rothschild group includes these companies.

RIT Capital Partners

In 1980, resigned from N M Rothschild & Sons and took independent control of Rothschild Investment Trust (now, a British investment trust), which has reported assets of $3.4 billion in 2008. It is listed on. Lord Rothschild is also one of the major investors behind BullionVault, a gold trading platform.

RIT Capital stores a significant proportion of its assets in the form of. Other assets include oil and energy-related investments.

Investment

In 1991, founded J. Rothschild Assurance Group (now ) with. It is also listed on.

In 2001, the Rothschild mansion located at 18, London, was on sale for £85 million, at that time (2001) the most expensive residential property ever to go on sale in the world. It was built in marble, at 9,000 sq ft, with underground parking for 20 cars.

In December 2009, invested $200 million of his own money in a company.

In January 2010, bought a substantial share of the mining and oil company's market capitalisation. He is also buying a large share of the aluminium mining company.

During the 19th century, the Rothschilds controlled the, and to this day, Rothschild and Rio Tinto maintain a close business relationship.

In 2012, RIT Capital Partners announced it is to buy a 37 per cent stake in a wealth advisory and asset management group. Commenting on the deal,, a former of the, said: "The connection between our two families remains very strong."

Wine

The Rothschild family has been in the winemaking industry for 150 years. In 1853 purchased and renamed it. In 1868, purchased the neighbouring Château Lafite and renamed it.

Today, the Rothschild family owns many wine estates: their estates in France include, Château de Malengin,,,,, Château de Laversine,,, Château Malmaison, Château de Montvillargenne,,, and Château Rothschild d'Armainvilliers. They also own wine estates across North America, South America, South Africa and Australia.

Especially, and are classified as Premier Cru Classé—i.e.,, the status referring to a classification of wines from the Bordeaux region of France.

Art and charity

The family once had one of the largest private art collections in the world, and a significant proportion of the art in the world's public museums are Rothschild donations which were sometimes, in the family tradition of discretion, donated anonymously.

was appointed in December 2014 as Chair of the Board of the of London.besten dating seiten kostenlos class="reference">

Cultural references

In the words of the : "This multinational banking family is a byword for wealth, power – and discretion... The Rothschild name has become synonymous with money and power to a degree that perhaps no other family has ever matched."

The Neo-Gothic Rothschildschloss,

Writing of the and Rothschild families, writes: "That is what makes these two dynasties so exceptional – not just their dizzying wealth, but the fact that they have held on to it for so long: and not just the loot, but also their family companies."

The story of the Rothschild family has been featured in a number of films. The 1934 Hollywood film titled , starring and, recounted the life of and (both played by Arliss). Excerpts from this film were incorporated into the Nazi propaganda film (The Eternal Jew) without the permission of the copyright holder. Another Nazi film, Die Rothschilds (also called Aktien auf Waterloo), was directed by in 1940. A Broadway musical entitled , covering the history of the family up to 1818, was nominated for a in 1971. appears as a minor character in the historical-mystery novel , by. Mayer Rothschild is featured in 's novel as a coin seller summoned to Le Havre by Jamie Fraser to appraise coins, prior to the establishment of the Rothschild dynasty, when Mayer is in his early 20s. The Rothschild name is mentioned by in his novel , among many names of historically affluent persons, scientific innovators and others. The character, named Morgana Rothschild, played a relatively minor role in the story. The name Rothschild used as a synonym for extreme wealth inspired the song "", which is based on a song from the the Dairyman stories, written in the as Ven ikh bin Rotshild, meaning "If I were a Rothschild".

In France, the word "Rothschild" was throughout the 19th and 20th centuries a synonym for seemingly endless wealth, neo-Gothic styles, and epicurean glamour. The family also has lent its name to "le," a suffocatingly glamorous style of interior decoration whose elements include neo-Renaissance palaces, extravagant use of velvet and gilding, vast collections of armour and sculpture, a sense of, and the highest masterworks of art. Le goût Rothschild has much influenced designers such as,, and others.

"Yes, my dear fellow, it all amounts to this: in order to do something first you must be something. We think Dante great, and he had a civilization of centuries behind him; the House of Rothschild is rich and it has required much more than one generation to attain such wealth. Such things all lie much deeper than one thinks."

, October 1828

Conspiracy theories

See also:, and

Over more than two centuries, the Rothschild family has frequently been the subject of. These theories take differing forms, such as claiming that the family controls the world's wealth and financial institutions or encouraged or discouraged wars between governments. Discussing this and similar views, the historian wrote,

As we have seen, however, wars tended to hit the price of existing bonds by increasing the risk that a debtor state would fail to meet its interest payments in the event of defeat and losses of territory. By the middle of the 19th century, the Rothschilds had evolved from traders into fund managers, carefully tending to their own vast portfolio of government bonds. Now having made their money, they stood to lose more than they gained from conflict. The Rothschilds had decided the outcome of the by putting their financial weight behind Britain. Now they would sit on the sidelines.

Most of these conspiracy theories about the Rothschild family are not based on evidence. Rather, many arise from and various.

Prominent descendants of Mayer Amschel Rothschild

See also:

Prominent lineal descendants of Mayer Amschel Rothschild include among many others:

This is a and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by with entries.

Baron David René de Rothschild, current French chairman of N M Rothschild & Sons and formerly of
Bertha-Clara von Rothschild (Princess of Wagram) (, 1890)
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, a Rothschild family mansion in Buckinghamshire, England
Vermeer's The Astronomer, donated to charity by the family in 1982.
, donated to charity by the family in 1947.
Exbury House, a Rothschild estate in England.
  • Major Alexander Karet (1905–1976)
  • Adeleheid von Rothschild (1853–1935) x 1877 : Edmond de Rothschild (1845–1934) (see the Paris branch)
  • (15 August 1876 – 8 May 1969)
  • (1883–1918), died fighting in the First World War
  • (1844–1911), former majority shareholder of
  • (20 July 1842 – 31 January 1918)
  • (1847–1922) close friend of
  • (1867–1909), French socialite
  • Alice Rothschild (born 1983), wife of, after his divorce of
  • Lady Aline Caroline Cholmondeley (born 1916)[]
  • (born c. 1931), a former wife of, from the noble Italian Jewish Franchetti family
  • Baroness Alix Hermine Jeannette Schey de Koromla (1911–1982)
  • (1827–1905)
  • (1955–1996, Paris), patron of motor racing
  • Princess Andréa de La Tour d'Auvergne-Lauraguais (born Paris 1972)[]
  • (1887–1961), horse-breeder
  • (born 1977)
  • (1803–1874), Austrian banker
  • Anselm Alexander Carl de Rothschild (1835–1854)[]
  • (1810–1876)
  • Antoine Armand Odélric Marie Henri de Gramont, 13th Duke of Gramont (born 1951)
  • Alain James de Rothschild (1910–1982)[]
  • Lady Barbara Marie-Louise Constance Berry (born 1935)
  • Arthur de Rothschild (1851–1903)
  • (born 1963, Paris)
  • Princess Béatrice de Broglie (born 1913)
  • (1864–1934)
  • (1914–1999)
  • (1788–1855)
  • Cécile Léonie Eugénie Gudule Lucie de Rothschild (1913–1995)
  • (born 1955), British opera singer
  • (1818–84)
  • Count Charles-Emmanuel Lannes de Montebello (born 1942)
  • (1877–1923), banker and entomologist
  • Constance Flower, 1st Baroness of Battersea (1843–1931)[]
  • (born 1960), of England
  • (born 1978), billionaire British adventurer and environmentalist
  • (born 1942)
  • Diane Cécile Alice Juliette de Rothschild (born 1907)[]
  • (1926–1997)
  • (born 1957)
  • (1868–1949) financier and polo player
  • Prince Edouard de La Tour d'Auvergne-Lauraguais (born 1949)
  • (1845–1934)
  • (1916–2009)
  • (1917–2007)
  • Princess Elisabeth de Broglie (born 1920)
  • (born 1948)
  • Esther de Rothschild (born 1979)
  • (1839–66)
  • (1886–1917), died fighting for the in the
  • (born 1931), banker
  • Baron, (1839–1898)
  • Francesca Diane de Rothschild (1919–1998), philanthropist
  • Count Gabriel Antoine Armand (1908–1943), a soldier of the.
  • (1829–1911)
  • (1909–2007)
  • née Hannah Rothschild (1851–1890)
  • (born 1962), documentary filmmaker
  • Heidi Magdalena de Rothschild (1933), socialite
  • Helene Cecile Muhlstein de Rothschild (1936–2007) x 1962 : François Nourissier (1927–2011), président de l'Académie Goncourt
  • (1872–1946), playwright, grandson of
  • Henry Herbert, 6th Earl of Carnarvon (1898–1987)
  • (1943), 10th Duke of Noailles
  • Henriette Rothschild (1791–1866) married (1784–1885)
  • Count Henri de Gramont (1909–1994)[]
  • (1919–90), of England
  • (born 1936), investment banker
  • Jacqueline de Rothschild (1911–2012) x (1) 1930; Robert Calmann-Lévy (1899–1982) puis x (2) 1937; Gregor Piatigorsky (1903–1976)
  • James Amschel Victor Rothschild (born 1985)
  • (1878–1957)
  • (1792–1868)
  • Joachim Von Rothschild (1929–1998)
  • (1963 - 2013)
  • (born 1929)
  • (1882–1917), MP, killed fighting in the First World War
  • (née Baroness Pannonica Rothschild) (1913–1988), patron of bebop and jazz writer – often called the "Jazz Baroness"
  • (1929–1987), Belgian art collector
  • Lamasnipes de Rothschild (1844–1915)
  • (1845–1917)
  • (1927–2012)
  • Leonora de Rothschild (1837–1911)
  • (1808–1879)
  • (1882–1955)
  • Lady Louise Rothschild (1821-1910), philanthropist and daughter of Henrietta Rothschild
  • Countess Magdalene-Sophie von Attems (born 1927)
  • Maria de Rothschild (1894–1937)
  • (1927–94), French socialite
  • (1881–1957)
  • (1818–1874)
  • (1908–2005), famous and
  • , of Tring in the County of Hertford (1868–1937)
  • (1812–1870)
  • (born 1971)
  • (1777–1836)
  • , of Tring in the County of Hertford (1840–1915)
  • , of Tring in the County of Hertford (born 1936)
  • (1946), French financier
  • , of Tring in the County of Hertford (1910–1990)
  • (born 1971), a co-chairman of Atticus Capital, a £20 billion
  • (1836–1905), Austrian socialite
  • (1888–1939), British and
  • Count Philippe de Nicolay (born 1955), great-grandson of Salomon James de Rothschild, he is a director of the Rothschild group.
  • Robert de Rothschild (1880–1946) x 1907 : Gabrielle Beer (1886–1945)
  • (1902–1988), vintner, son of
  • (1935–2014), vintner, daughter of
  • (1911–2012), chess and tennis champion
  • (1882–1974) Earl of Roseberry
  • (1976–2000)
  • (1835–1864)
  • (born 1935)
  • Countess Sophie von Löwenstein-Scharffeneck (1896–1978)
  • (1879–1955), British writer
  • (1894–1989)
  • Valentine Noémi von Springer (1886–1969)
  • Victoria Katherine Rothschild (born 1953)
  • (1868-1937), zoologist
  • (1828-1901)

Prominent marriages into the family include, among many others:

This is a and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by with entries.

  • (1849–1916), of the
  • (born 1980), son of financier, of the married Kate Emma Rothschild (born 1982)
  • Anita Patience Guinness (1957), of the, married Amschel Mayor James Rothschild
  • (1804–1878), of the, married Charlotte Beyfus (1811–1887)
  • Cora Guggenheim (1873–1956), of the, married Louis F. Rothschild (1869–1957)
  • (1867–1909) married (1856–1912), of the
  • Carola Warburg Rothschild (1894–1987), philanthropist, born into the
  • Sara Louise de Rothschild (born 1834), married the (born 1829)
  • (1884–1976) married (1885 – c. 1946)
  • In 1923, James Nathaniel Charles Léopold Rothschild, son of Henri James Nathaniel Charles Rothschild and Mathilde Sophie Henriette de Weisweiller, married Claude du Pont of the.
  • Bertha Clara de Rothschild (1862) married
  • Bertha Juliet de Rothschild (1870) married Baron Emmanuel Leonino
  • Lili Jeanette von Goldschimdt-Rothschild (1883–1929), married Baron Philippe Schey de Koromla
  • (1902–1945), the only member of the Rothschild family to die in the Holocaust.
  • Antoine Agénor Armand (1879–1962), of the Naples Rothschild lines, married Countess Élaine Greffulhe, daughter of
  • Hannah Mayer Rothschild (1815–1864) married (1807–1859), of the family of the
  • Edouard Alphonse James de Rothschild (1868–1949) married in 1905 the Baroness Alice Germaine de Halphen (1884–1979)
  • Count (1919–1963), of the, married
  • in 1878 married Antoine Alfred Agénor, 11th (1851–1921),
  • (1895–1988), on her death she left the largest probated estate in Britain
  • married, the illegitimate daughter of
  • (1908–1976), fashion designer and translator of Elizabethan poetry
  • Lady Irma Pauahi Wodehouse (1897), of the
  • Prince Louis Philippe Berthier (1836–1911)
  • (born 1933),, economist and philosopher, married of the.
  • (1908–2003), actress
  • (1932–), French actress and author
  • Princess Sophie de Ligne (born 1957), of the, married Philippe de Nicolay (born 1955), a director of the Rothschild group, and the great-grandson of
  • Liliane de Rothschild (1916–2003), art collector
  • married, of the and the.
  • Baron Robert Philippe de Rothschild married Nelly Beer, a great-grand-niece of
  • (1910–1991), married Olga Alice Muriel Rothschild
  • (born 1935), granddaughter of
  • (born 1954), businesswoman
  • Edward Maurice Stonor (1885–1930), son of []
  • Lady Pamela Wellesley Grant (born 1912), great-great-granddaughter of the, married Lieutenant Charles Robert Archibald Grant, great-great-grandson of Mayer Amschel de Rothschild
  • Baroness Rozsika Edle von Wertheimstein
  • Baron Etienne van Zuylen van Nyevelt of the House of Van Zuylen van Nyevelt – married (1863–1947).
  • Baron Sigismund von Springer (1873–1927), married Baroness Valentine Noémi von Rothschild (1886–1969), after whom the asteroid is named
  • In 1943 Baron Elie Robert de Rothschild (1917–2007), married Lady Liliane Elisabeth Victoire Fould-Springer, great-aunt of actress
  • In 2015, James Rothschild married American heiress and socialite, the great-granddaughter of founder

Coat of arms

‹ The below () is being considered for merging. See to help reach a consensus. ›

See also

Notes

  1. . Telegraph.co.uk. 4 March 2015. 
  2. Elon, Amos (1996). Founder: Meyer Amschel Rothschild and His Time. New York: HarperCollins.  . 
  3. Backhaus, Fritz (1996). "The Last of the Court Jews – Mayer Amschel Rothschild and His Sons". In Mann, Vivian B.; Cohen, Richard I. From Court Jews to the Rothschilds: Art, Patronage, and Power 1600–1800. New York: Prestel. pp. 79–95.  . 
  4. ^ The House of Rothschild: Money's prophets, 1798–1848, Volume 1, Niall Ferguson, 1999, page 481-85
  5. . The Independent. Archived from on 15 January 2006. 
  6. ^ The Secret Life of the Jazz Baroness, from The Times 11 April 2009, Rosie Boycott
  7. Rothschild: a story of wealth and power, by Derek A. Wilson, (Deutsch 1988), pages 415-456
  8. ^ The Rothschilds: Portrait of a Dynasty, By Frederic Morton, page 11
  9. ^ Robert Booth (8 July 2011).. The Guardian. London. 
  10. ^ The Rough Guide to Conspiracy Theories, James McConnachie, Robin Tudge Edition: 2 – 2008
  11. Pohl, Manfred (2005),, (NDB) (in German), 22, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 131–133 
  12. . Lcf-rothschild.com. Archived from on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  13. Paul Johnson, A History of the Jews, p.317.
  14. The House of Rothschild (Vol. 2): The World's Banker: 1849–1999, Niall Ferguson (2000)
  15. Jewish Encyclopedia c. 1906
  16. by Richard Conniff, From the August 2003 issue, published online 1 August 2003
  17. ^ Constantin von Wurzbach (1874). (in German). Vienna: Zamarski. p. 120. Retrieved 26 February 2018. 
  18. The Genealogy of the Existing British Peerage and Baronetage, By Edmund Lodge, Hurst and Blackett, 1859, page 808
  19. . . 3 July 1885. p. 3060. 
  20. . GreatGameIndia Magazine. East India Company Series (Apr-June 2016 Issue). 26 June 2016. 
  21. ^ Victor Gray and Melanie Aspey,, , Oxford University Press, September 2004; online edition, May 2006. Retrieved 21 May 2007.
  22. ^ The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World, (London 2008), page 78.
  23. ^ Victor Rothschild – "The Shadow of a Great Man" in Random Variables, Collins, 1984.
  24. ^ *Ferguson, Niall. The World's Banker: The History of the House of Rothschild. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998,  
  25. Philip Ziegler, The Sixth Great Power: Barings, 1726–1929, (London 1988), pp.94f
  26. ^ Shaw, Caroline S. (2005). (PDF). Latin American Research Review. Austin: 165–185. Archived from (PDF) on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
  27. . Information Bureau. The Rothschild Archive. Archived from on 4 February 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
  28. The Rio Tinto Company: an economic history of a leading international mining concern, Charles E. Harvey (1981), page 188
  29. A History of the Jews, Paul Johnson (London 2004), page 319–20
  30. . 1836. p. 41. 
  31. Reuters, 14 June 2007
  32. Lewis, Paul (14 June 2007).. New York Times. 
  33. Faith, Nicholas (4 November 1997).. The Independent. London. Retrieved 29 March 2009. 
  34. Gilbert Trigano, a Developer of Club Med, Is Dead at 80 By JOHN TAGLIABUE Published: 6 February 2001
  35. Lafite; the story of Château Lafite-Rothschild, by Cyril Ray (NY 1969), page 66.
  36. Thomas Trenkler. Der Fall Rothschild: Chronik einer Enteignung. Czernin Verlag, Vienna. 1999.  
  37. Vogel, Carol (10 April 1999).. New York Times. Retrieved 1 June 2013. 
  38. The reign of the house of Rothschild, Egon Caesar Corti (Conte), 1928, page 46
  39. . , 1901–1906, Vol. 2, p. 497.
  40. ^ Vallely, Paul (16 April 2004).. The Independent. London. Archived from on 9 July 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2010. 
  41. "Balfour Declaration." (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 August 2007, from.
  42. Aharonson, Ran (2000). Rothschild and early Jewish colonization in Palestine. Israel: The Hebrew university Magnes Press, Jerusalem. p. 53.  . 
  43. Aharonson, Ran (2000). Rothschild and early Jewish colonization in Palestine. Israel: The Hebrew university Magnes Press, Jerusalem. p. 54.  . 
  44. Encyclopedia of Zionism and Israel, vol. 2, "Rothschild, Baron Edmond-James de," p. 966
  45. Greenwood, Naftali.. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 8 April 2010. 
  46. . Knesset.gov.il. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  47. (obituary), , 13 December 1988. Retrieved 19 June 2008.
  48. , Tour of Supreme Court, The Judicial Authority..
  49. ^ "Family values", Haaretz, Magazine, 11:15 05.11.10, By Eytan Avriel and Guy Rolnik
  50. Magen, Hadas (31 May 2015).. .
  51. . Paris-orleans.com. Archived from on 2012-03-25. 
  52. (PDF). Paris-orleans.com. Archived from (PDF) on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2008. 
  53. . Rabobank. Archived from on 5 February 2009. 
  54. . Financial Times. 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2008. 
  55. ^ Reuters.
  56. . Rothschild.com. Archived from on 23 August 2002. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  57. Annual Report of N M Rothschild & Sons Limited for the year ended 31 March 2006.
  58. The House of Rothschild: Money's prophets, 1798–1848, Volume 1, Niall Ferguson, 1999, p. 3.
  59. Hei Hu Quan. undeletedevidence.blogspot.com. 
  60. . Miranda.hemscott.com. 28 October 2003. Archived from on 25 August 2004. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  61. The Daily Telegraph (London), Garry White, 20 June 2010
  62. Bloomberg, 17 November 2010
  63. Peippo, Kathleen (2000).. Findarticles.com. Archived from on 8 July 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2010. 
  64. The Daily Telegraph (London), Ross Clark, 1 August 2001
  65. , Sunday Times 6 December 2009
  66. Bloomberg Businessweek, Glencore May Expand to Rival BHP, Rothschild Says 6 January 2010, Simon Casey
  67. . Le Monde.fr. 
  68. Financial Times (London), Daniel Schäfer, 29 May 2012
  69. Tom Bawden, Thursday 31 May 2012, The Independent (London)
  70. . rothschild.info. Archived from on 25 September 2003. 
  71. The Rothschilds: Portrait of a Dynasty, By Frederic Morton, page 11-13
  72. . nationalgallery.org.uk. 
  73. The Daily Telegraph (London), The Rothschilds: They prefer to let their money do the talking, William Langley, 25 October 2008
  74. Harry Mount, 30 May 2012, The Daily Telegraph (London)
  75. . www.lyricsmania.com. 
  76. The Rothschilds: Portrait of a Dynasty, By Frederic Morton (1998), page 5
  77. Ferguson, ch.1
  78. Levy, Richard S. (2005). Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice. ABC-CLIO. p. 624.  . 
  79. Poliakov, Leon (2003). The History of Anti-semitism: From Voltaire to Wagner. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 343.  . 
  80. Brustein, William (2003). Roots of hate. Cambridge University Press. p. 147.  . 
  81. Perry, Marvin (2002). Antisemitism: Myth and Hate from Antiquity to the Present. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 117.  . 
  82. The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World, (London 2008), page 91.
  83. Jovan Byford (2011).. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 104. ... a further and more direct link with the conspiracy culture's antisemitic apparent in the treatment of the Rothschild family. Ever since the nineteenth century, the Rothchilds, who combined Jewishness, financial wealth and international connections, have been the epitome of the international Jewish conspiracy (Barkun, 2006). The family name continues to feature in conspiratorial narratives to the present day, although writers of the post-1945 era have tended to play down their importance. 
  84. Markku Ruotsila (2003). "Antisemitism". In Peter Knight.. ABC-CLIO. p. 82. This new economic antisemitism issued in a variety of full-blown conspiracy theories in the 1870s through the 1890s. In these conspiracy theories all the perceived evils of modern capitalism and industrialism were ascribed to Jews,.... and, on a more precise level, because of the purported machinations of identifiable Jewish financiers. The latter type of theories tended to center around the supposed power of the Rothschild banking family and those of its U.S. agents that were central in various reconstruction and public debt refinancing schemes after the Civil War... 
  85. Richard Allen Landes and Steven T. Katz (2012).. NYU Press. p. 189. ... there are anti-Semitic claims of a vast conspiracy by Jews that structurally replicate the without mentioning the hoax document. Another way conspiracy theories try to avoid the label of anti-Semitic is to argue that there is a vast conspiracy by the "Rothschild family" or the "Khazars" or some other entity... 
  86. David Norman Smith (2013). "Anti-Semitism". In Carl Skutsch.. 1 (A-F). Routledge. p. 110. The great banking barons of the Rothschild family became, in anti-Semitic fantasy, living emblems of Jews everywhere.... For anti-Semites, socialism and bank capitalism are just two sides of the Jewish conspiracy against order and tradition.... 
  87. Michael Streeter (2008).. New Holland Publishers. p. 146-47. When it comes to conspiracy theories and the secret societies that supposedly run out world... The finger of suspicion often points to bankers and Jews -- and often to Jewish bankers -- as the moneymen behind this world plot. Chief among the 'suspects' are the Rothschilds, the Jewish banking dynasty... Yet there is little or nothing that the Rothschild bankers have done that is not perfectly explicable by normal banking practices..... he fact that the Rothschilds feature at the centre of so many conspiracy theories is perhaps no coincidence. For it is sadly the case that many claims alleging secret societies have contained more than a tinge of anti-Semitism. 
  88. Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke (2002).. NYU Press. p. 296. [Conspiracy theorist Jan van] 's dubious sources, his constant repetition of Jewish names as members of private and public organizations, and above all his emphasis on the assets and powerbroking influence of the Rothschilds as the top Illuminati family leave no doubt that his conspiracy theories are aimed at Jewish targets. 
  89. Morton, Fredreric (1962)The Rothschilds; A Family Portrait, Secker & Warburg;London, UK
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Further reading

  • : The House of Rothschild: Money's Prophets, 1798–1848 ( )
  • : The House of Rothschild: The World's Banker, 1849–1998 ( )
  • : The Rothschilds: Portrait of a Dynasty ( )
  • : Founder: A Portrait of the First Rothschild and His Time, 1996. ( )
  • Egon Caesar Conte Corti: Rise of the House of Rothschild, B. Lunn (translator), Books for Business 2001 (reprint of 1928 translation published by Gollancz),  ,
  • Joseph Valynseele & Henri-Claude Mars, Le Sang des Rothschild,, Paris, 2004 ( )
  • Derek A. Wilson: Rothschild: A Story of Wealth and Power ( )
  • Mir-Babayev M.F. The role of Azerbaijan in the World's oil industry – "Oil-Industry History" (USA), 2011, v. 12, no. 1, p. 109–123.
  • Mir-Babayev M.F. The Rothschild brother’s contribution to Baku’s oil industry – "Oil-Industry History" (USA), 2012, v. 13, no. 1, p. 225–236.

Documentary film

External links

History

Foundations

David Mayer de Rothschild (born 25 August 1978) is a British,, and and head of Sculpt the Future Foundation, a charity that supports innovations and creativity in social and environmental impact efforts.

Contents

Early life[]

He is a member of the, the youngest of three children of Victoria Lou Schott (born 1949) and (b. 1931) of the. His middle name "Mayer" is taken from the name of the founder of the,. The youngest heir to his family's banking fortune, de Rothschild was born in 1978 in. His mother is American, the daughter of Marcia Lou (née Whitney) and real estate developer Lewis M. Schott. He is the younger brother of and Jessica de Rothschild. As a teenager, de Rothschild was a top-ranked horse jumper on Britain's junior event team. He later gave up the sport to pursue his education, stating in an interview with The New Yorker "I realized there was more to life than spending hours and hours and hours on a horse."

After leaving in 1996 he attended receiving a 2:1 B.Sc (Hons) in and. In 2002, de Rothschild studied at the College of Naturopathic Medicine, London where he received an advanced Diploma in Natural Medicine, ND. By age 20, de Rothschild had started his own music merchandising business and sold it. In 2001 he bought a 1,100 acre organic farm in New Zealand, and was invited to take part in a Polar expedition. This experience turned de Rothschild into an enterprising eco-adventurer.

Exploration[]

Polar expeditions[]

In 2006, de Rothschild spent over 100 days crossing the from Russia to Canada, which saw him become one of only 42 people, and the youngest British person, to ever reach both geographical poles. He had already become one of only 14 people ever to traverse the continent of, and was part of a team that broke the world record for the fastest ever crossing of the ice cap. In 2006 he launched the website "Mission Control" in order to present his expeditions and environmental efforts to children and the youth. The trek across the Arctic was the first "mission" to be highlighted on the website, and the second was planned to either be a trek through the Amazon or a trek from to the.

His expeditions also led to his founding of the Adventure Ecology organization, in order to use adventure to help inspire people to live more sustainably. Adventure Ecology is driven towards the youth demographic but is accessible to others as well. It serves as a community and network for the discussion of climate change and associated problems.

Plastiki[]

Main article:

The Plastiki before its maiden voyage.

In the late 2000s de Rothschild developed a mission to raise awareness of the, in which he invented a new form of sustainable ship at a lab on Pier 31 in San Francisco, called the . In March 2010, de Rothschild launched the boat, a 60-foot (18 m) catamaran built from approximately 12,500 reclaimed plastic bottles and a unique recyclable technology called Seretex. Seretex, which was developed by de Rothschild and his team, was meant to reuse in a novel way, finding new uses for a waste product. The Plastiki and its crew sailed over 8,000 nautical miles (15,000 km; 9,200 mi) across the Pacific Ocean from San Francisco to Sydney. The evening before their journey began, de Rothschild and his skipper Jo Royle interviewed with, quoting when asked how he felt in anticipation for the trip.

David de Rothschild on the Plastiki.

The successfully completed its journey to Sydney on 26 July 2010. Along with the Plastiki de Rothschild launched a platform for community interaction and sharing stories called "Myoo" (the name comes from the pronunciation of "community"). The Plastiki was named one of 2010's fifty best inventions by Time magazine. The Plastiki is named after the , a raft used by Pacific explorer.

The construction of the ship is notable not only for its use of recycled plastic bottles as a primary building material, but also for using reclaimed and materials throughout. In April 2010, Mayer told Good Morning America: "Every part of the boat, even down to the glue we used to stick the boat together, [it] is a glue we made and had to engineer specifically for this project. It's made of cashew nuts and sugar....every part of the boat - from the interior with reclaimed materials, reclaimed fabric, is all trying to do our best and showcasing there are a lot of solutions out there." In 2009, 's Jon Colapinto wrote about the Plastiki, comparing its creator, de Rothschild, to adventurers such as and.

ARTiculate expeditions[]

As part of Adventure Ecology’s ARTiculate series, de Rothschild led a field trip expedition to in 2007. The group spent time in the Ecuadorian rain forest, documenting the damage international oil companies had caused by drilling the vast oil reserves. In November 2011 de Rothschild and a small crew mounted an expedition to Brazil’s Amazon rainforest as part of the ARTiculate series, with the goal of better understanding and publicizing the effects of the controversial Belo Monte dam project. This expedition was supplemented by articles on Myoo.com and culminated in an art project developed with local children. When asked by Outside Magazine reporter Caty Enders about whether an expedition could make a difference in a pressing issue like the Belo Monte dam de Rothschild replied that "it would be naïve to think that this mini art-based adventure into the Amazon is going to change what has been in motion for the last 36 years. But when you see someone in the road and they're dying, do you keep walking and say, Oh, they'll be dead soon? That's the reality when you embark on an adventure like this, you may never know the true outcome until many years later".

Organizations[]

The Myoo concept developed into the Myoo Agency, founded by de Rothschild as a marketing agency that works with businesses looking to create sustainable practices. The Plastiki development was done under the company name Smarter Plan, which continues to develop additional solutions for adapting waste into useful objects and devices. Myoo was eventually renamed the World-Exposure agency, reflecting his new partnership with the Exposure marketing agency. It carries on the task of introducing firms to sustainable practices and promoting communications strategies involving sustainable means and profiling sustainable enterprises. A precursor to Myoo was Rothschild's previous organization Adventure Ecology, the mission of which has been absorbed into World-Exposure.[]

Rothschild is also the founder of the environmental foundation Sculpt the Future. Sculpt the Future took the initiative of spreading environmental education through the use of adventure ecology and other high-profile methods. According to , the foundation "encourages people to find new ways to change and improve their communities and environment". Rothschild also founded Mpact, which focuses on teaching corporations and organizations on how to access the most zealous community contributors and volunteers, and how to provide them with the tools they need to succeed on their behalf.

Written work[]

In 2007 de Rothschild wrote The Live Earth Global Warming Survival Handbook: 77 Essential Skills to Stop Climate Change—Or Live Through It ( ), with afterword by, which was the official companion book to the concert series. In 2008 he was the Consultant Editor for Earth Matters: An Encyclopedia of Ecology, wrote an action, The Boy,The Girl,The Tree with artist and wrote the Foreword to True Green Kids: 100 Things You Can Do to Save the Planet. In 2008, alongside others including, 's environmental advisor, de Rothschild helped to write the commentary for the book Antarctica - The Global Warning. De Rothschild is a contributor, commenting on environmental issues. In early 2010 he also trademarked the phrase Equation For Curiosity.

Film work[]

In 2012 de Rothschild developed Eco Trip: The Real Cost of Living, an eight part series on the production methods behind household items and the impact their use has on the environment. Each episode covers the full life cycle of the products.

Recognition[]

David de Rothschild was awarded the accolade of "Emerging Explorer" by, was appointed an "international ambassador" by NGO and nominated as a "Young Global Leader" by the World Economic Forum. In 2007 de Rothschild was named one of 's men of the year, being the sole individual named to the "Environmentalist" category. The following year, due to his efforts at involving youth in environmental issues, he was the 2008 winner of the "Greenie Award". In 2009 Rothschild was named by the as a "Climate Hero". In 2011 de Rothschild served on the judging panel for the International Green Awards as well as the Climate Week Awards. In 2011 he also received the Honorary Award of the.

References[]

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External links[]

Zahra Doe Morbi gravida, sem non egestas ullamcorper, tellus ante laoreet nisl, id iaculis urna eros vel turpis curabitur.

3 Comments

Zahra Doejune 2, 2017
Morbi gravida, sem non egestas ullamcorper, tellus ante laoreet nisl, id iaculis urna eros vel turpis curabitur.
Zahra Doejune 2, 2017
Morbi gravida, sem non egestas ullamcorper, tellus ante laoreet nisl, id iaculis urna eros vel turpis curabitur.
Zahra Doejune 2, 2017
Morbi gravida, sem non egestas ullamcorper, tellus ante laoreet nisl, id iaculis urna eros vel turpis curabitur.

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