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gäste, ihren ausweis vorzuzeigen. wir bitten um verständnis, dass wir aus organisatorischen gründen keine rückzahlung an die betreffenden vor- nehmen können. aus langjähriger erfahrung wissen wir um den anteil der senioren, die an unseren reisen teilnehmen. das reduzierte ein- trittsgeld fließt in die kalkulation mit ein und kommt als mischkalkulation fremde länder: in vielen südlichen ländern spielt sich das leben auch abends mehr im freien ab. daher kann es etwas lauter zugehen als bei fotos single party ingolstadt fährüberfahrten: wir empfehlen ihnen who is mohit raina dating ein handgepäck für die nacht auf der fähre. sollte eine sicherheitsübung an bord für die passagiere stattfinden ist die teilnahme daran verpflichtend. bei unklarheiten über flugreisen: seit über 30 jahren bieten wir die an-und abreise un- serer studienreisen mit dem flugzeug an! am zielort erwartet sie bitte kontrollieren sie umgehend nach erhalt der buchungsbestä- tigung, ob ihre persönlichen daten (namen, vornamen, geburts- datum) mit dem eintrag in der maschinenlesbaren zeile in ihrem personalausweis bzw. reisepass exakt übereinstimmen. für nach- trägliche änderungen des flugtickets entstehen für gewöhnlich flugreisen sind vorbehaltlich flugzeitänderungen von seiten der fluggesellschaft. die gestaltung des flugplanes liegt im wesentlichen im verantwortungsbereich der fluggesellschaften und der staatlichen koordinationsbehörden. kurzfristige änderungen der flugzeiten und der flugpreisgarantie bis 35 tage vor reiseantritt: grundlage für die kalkulation unserer flugreisen sind sondertarife der jeweiligen flugge- sellschaft. diese gelten jedoch nur für ein begrenztes flug-kontin- gent, das 35 tage vor abflug abgestimmt und an die fest gebuchte teilnehmerzahl angepasst werden muss. wenn dieses ausgeschöpft ist und bei kurzfristigen buchungen ab 35 tagen vor reiseantritt, gelten die oft deutlich höheren tagespreise. den in diesem fall gel- flugreisen mit örtlichem reisebus: (z. b. madeira, menorca, azoren, kanaren, zypern, moskau, fernreisen) die platzeinteilung im örtlichen bus entspricht meist nicht dem bussitzplan dem die platzreservierung bei buchung zu grunde liegt. sitzplatzänderungen vor ort sind leider manchmal unvermeidlich. in manchen ländern gibt es keinen reiselei- tersitz im bus oder es ist der reiseleitung durch örtliche gesetze verbo- ten, dort zu sitzen, deshalb sitzt die reiseleitung in der ersten sitzreihe. freigepäck bei flugreisen: freigepäckgrenze 1 gepäckstück mit 20 – 23 kg pro person. ein zweites aufgegebenes gepäckstück verursacht erhebliche mehrkosten. gepäckschäden sind binnen 7 tagen bei der fluggesellschaft zu melden. gepäckverlust, binnen 21 tagen, ge- handgepäck: aus sicherheitsgründen sind spitze gegenstände (z.b. taschenmesser, nagelfeile) im handgepäck nicht erlaubt (im haupt- gepäck schon). koffer sollten nicht verschlossen sein. es dürfen flüs- sigkeiten, wachs- oder gelartige stoffe in begrenzter form mit an bord genommen werden. erlaubt sind flüssigkeiten nur in behältnissen wie flaschen oder dosen bis zu einer größe von jeweils 100 ml. diese müs- sen in einem transparenten und verschließbaren plastikbeutel mit einem volumen von maximal einem liter verstaut werden. pro passagier darf frühzahlernachlaß auf den reisepreis: bei zahlung des kompletten reisepreises erhalten sie folgenden nachlaß auf den gesamtreisepreis: wichtige reiseinformationen a-z fundsachen: für liegen gebliebene gegenstände übernehmen wir kei- ne haftung. wir bewahren diese circa einen monat in unserem büro auf und leiten sie zum fundamt in ebermannstadt weiter. gruppenermässigung: bei gruppen ab 10 personen gewähren wir pro person eine ermässigung von 5 % auf den grundpreis. hotelzimmer: nach internationalem brauch ist der zimmerbezug am tag der anreise zwischen 14.00 und 16.00 uhr möglich. sollte die an- kunft im hotel früher sein, bemüht sich das hotel um eine frühere be- zugsfertigkeit, kann dies jedoch nicht garantieren. einzelzimmer: trotz zuschlags sind leider in manchen hotels einzel- zimmer kleiner und minderwertiger in ausstattung und lage als doppel- zimmer. wenn möglich, versuchen wir gleichwertige einzelzimmer zu buchen. oft sind heute einzelzimmer sogar doppelzimmer zur alleinbe- nutzung, allerdings mit beträchtlichem zuschlag. doppelzimmer: wir bemühen uns, doppelzimmer mit zwei betten zu buchen. in frankreich ist dies nicht immer möglich, da doppelzimmer oft mit einem großen bett (grand lit) und großer matratze ausgestattet sind. dreibettzimmer: sind in der regel doppelzimmer mit zustellbett (meist nur liege oder klappbett), das erfahrungsgemäß kürzer, schmaler und von minderer qualität ist als ein herkömmliches bett. durch das dritte bettes im raum kann dieser recht eng werden. heizperiode: in italien ist die heizperiode vom 01.10. bis 31.03. ge- setzlich festgesetzt und wird von den hoteliers oft unabhängig von der außentemperatur geregelt. kinderermäßigung: kinder unter 16 jahren erhalten für jede reise 10 % ermäßigung auf den reisepreis, plus evt. hotelnachlässe. koffer: wir bitten, jeden koffer mit namen und adresse zu versehen. die mindestteilnehmerzahl für unsere reisen beträgt 20 personen. die erklärung, dass die teilnehmerzahl nicht erreicht wurde und die reise nicht durchgeführt werden kann wird dem reisenden spätestens 14 tage vor reise- bzw. fahrtbeginn mitgeteilt. nichtraucherbusse: wir setzen nur nichtraucher-busse ein! notrufnummer: montag – freitag 8.00 – 16.45 uhr bitte unter 09194/4848 anrufen! außerhalb der büroöffnungszeiten 0170-3580410 (marion klemm)! öffnungszeiten: bei den im katalog genannten reiseabläufen und der tageseinteilung haben wir uns bemüht, die öffnungszeiten aller se- henswürdigkeiten zu berücksichtigen. der programmablauf kann jedoch aufgrund der jahreszeit, wetterlage, geänderter öffnungszeiten (z.b. an feiertagen) intern geändert werden um die besichtigung zu gewährlei- sten. charakter und gesamtzuschnitt der reise bleiben davon unberührt. parkplatz: für die dauer der reise steht ihnen ein kostenloser parkplatz auf dem grundstück schräg gegenüber von unserem betriebshof zur verfügung. reklamationen: die organisation unserer reisen ist im vorfeld mit großem organisatorischem aufwand verbunden. wir haben jede reise sorgfältig vorbereitet und bemühen uns, sie sachkundig und gewissen- haft durchzuführen. sollte es vor ort grund zur reklamation geben, ist das wichtigste, dass wir sofort davon kenntnis erhalten. nur dann können wir den mangel abstellen.der erste ansprechpartner vor ort ist die reiseleitung oder der fahrer. sind diese nicht erreichbar oder können nicht helfen, so verständigen sie uns bitte während der büroöffnungszeiten mo – fr von 8.00 – 16.45 uhr unter 09194/4848 oder außerhalb der büro-öffnungszeiten unter unserer notrufnummer 0170-3580410 (marion klemm) wir sind 24 stunden – 365 tage im jahr telefonisch erreichbar. reise-rücktrittskosten-versicherung: eine reiserücktrittskostenversicherung ist nicht im reisepreis ent- halten! mit ihrer buchungsbestätigung erhalten sie automatisch die entsprechende versicherungspolice der hansemerkur versicherung mit anhängendem zahlschein. durch überweisung der versicherungs- prämie an die versicherung können sie die reise-rücktrittskosten- versicherung unbürokratisch und bequem abschließen. reiseunterlagen: nach buchung der reise erhalten sie von uns per post folgende unterlagen: * ihre buchungsbestätigung/rechnung * sicherungsschein zur insolvenzversicherung (gesetzlich vorgeschrie- bene bürgschaft) für ihren gezahlten reisepreis! * 2 überweisungsvordrucke je für anzahlung und restzahlung * hinweis ob sie für die gebuchte reise ein visum benötigen bei busreisen erhalten sie 8 – 10 tage vor reiseantritt: • übersicht aller gebuchten hotels mit telefonnummer und anschrift • programmbeschreibung • bus-sitzplan bei flugreisen erhalten sie zusätzlich: • flugbestätigung der fluggesellschaft mit ticketnummer • handgepäckinformation bei flugreisen benötigt jeder teilnehmer zum einchecken am flug- hafen eine ticketnummer, die in der regel exakt 8 tage vor dem ab- flug von der fluggesellschaft ausgestellt wird. aus diesem grunde bitten wir um ihr verständnis, dass wir ihre reiseunterlagen frühestens nach erhalt ab 8 tage vor dem abflug erst in den versand geben können! rückkehr von der reise: die voraussichtliche uhrzeit für die rückkehr an ihrem einstiegsort finden sie in der jeweiligen reisebeschreibung. der straßenverkehr kann jedoch, insbesondere an feiertagen und in der hauptreisezeit, verzögerungen verursachen. sie haben während der letzten pause bei der heimreise immer gelegenheit, zu hause an- zurufen. sie können ihre verwandten und bekannten, die sie abholen möchten, dann meistens sehr genau über die ankunftszeit informieren. sitzplatz im bus: die verteilung der sitzplätze erfolgt in der reihenfolge der anmeldungen - ihre sitzplatz-nummer steht auf ihrer buchungsbe- stätigung. selbstverständlich reservieren wir ihnen gerne ihren wunsch- sitzplatz nach verfügbarkeit ohne jegliche mehrkosten! in außnahmefällen kann es durch unterschiedliche sitzplatzeinteilungen in den bussen zu verschiebungen kommen. hierüber informieren wir sie im regelfall telefonisch vor der reise! wir bitten um ihr verständnis! vorsorglich möchten wir darauf hinweisen, dass sitzplätze hinter einstie- gen (1. reihe oder mitteleinstieg) über geringere beinfreiheit verfügen, ohne bewegliche fußstützen ausgestattet sind und über eine feste abla- ge verfügen, anstatt den sonst üblichen klapptisch. verpflegung: sollten sie besondere wünsche bezüglich der abendes- sens (vegetarische kost) oder allergien (. b. glutenfrei) haben, sollten sie uns dies sofort bei der buchung mitteilen, damit wir umgehend die hotels informieren können. wir geben ihre wünsche an unsere leis- tungsträger weiter, können aber nicht für die einhaltung garantieren und übernehmen keine haftung für folgeschäden werbeaktion: wir bedanken uns herzlich für jede weiterempfehlung an freunde, bekannte, verwandte usw. in den vergangenen jahren und möchten dies auch entsprechend honorieren. wir gewähren für jeden von ihnen vermittelten neuen reisegast (betrifft nur neukunden, die noch nie an einer unserer katalog-reisen teilgenommen haben und somit auch nicht in unserer kundenkartei stehen) eine gutschrift von 3 % des reisepreises (gilt nicht für reisebüros!) zur einlösung auf ihrer nächsten reise. wichtig: die werbung und die adresse des werbers muß der vermittelte neue kunde bei der buchung angeben. ein anspruch auf die gutschrift besteht nur, wenn der kunde die reise durchgeführt hat und erfolgt deshalb erst nach dessen reise. teilstornierung: wird durch teilstornierung einer buchung die umbu- chung in eine andere zimmerart (einzelzimmer) notwendig, so hat der stornierende mehrkosten, wie einzelzimmerzuschlag, zu übernehmen. treibstoffkostenzuschlag: treibstoffpreise unterliegen schwan- kungen. die reisepreise in diesem reisekatalog wurden mit dem diesel- preis stand oktober 2017 kalkuliert. wir behalten uns eine weitergabe eventueller dieselpreiserhöhungen vor. wir bitten um verständnis. trinkgeld: es ist üblich, seiner zufriedenheit mit den leistungen des fahrers und der reiseleitung durch eine persönliche anerkennung aus- druck zu verleihen. zahlungsbedingungen: wir bitten um eine anzahlung spätestens in- nerhalb von 8 tagen nach erhalt ihrer buchungsbestätigung. die restzahlung erbitten wir spätestens 30 tage vor reiseantritt! n e n o i t a m r o f n i 5! g n u r h a f r e e r h a j 9 4 5 002-015_182065.indd 5 09.10.17 17:11 100% erfahrung: reisebüro josef klemm – tel. 09194/722780

fotos single party ingolstadt

The County Palatine of the mannheim uni semester dates Rhine (: Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (: Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (: Kurpfalz), was a historical territory of the, originally a administered by a. Its rulers served as (Kurfürsten) from "time immemorial", were noted as such in a papal letter of 1261, and fotos single party ingolstadt were confirmed as electors by the.

The fragmented territory stretched from the left bank of the, from the mountain range in what is today the region in the German federal state of and the adjacent parts of the regions of and ( of from 1418 to 1766) fotos single party ingolstadt to the opposite territory on the east bank of the Rhine in present-day and up to the range and the southern region, containing the capital cities of and.

The Counts Palatine of the Rhine held the office of in the territories under (in, and the ) and ranked among the most significant secular. Their climax and decline is marked by the rule of Elector Palatine, whose coronation as in 1619 sparked the. After the 1648, the ravaged lands were further afflicted by the launched by King, culminating in the (1688–97). Ruled in with the from 1777, the Electoral Palatinate was finally disestablished with the in 1803.

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mannheim uni semester dates

History[]

The comital office of at the court of King was already mentioned about 535. The Counts Palatine were the permanent representatives of the King, in particular geographic areas, in contrast to the semi-independent authority of the dukes (and their successors). Under the dynasty, the position had been a purely appointed one, but by the middle ages had evolved into an hereditary one.

Up to the 10th century, the Frankish empire was centered at the royal palace () in, in what had become the kingdom of. Consequently, the Count Palatine of Lotharingia became the most important of the Counts Palatine. Marital alliances meant that, by the middle ages, most Count Palatine positions had been inherited by the duke of the associated province, but the importance of the Count Palatine of Lotharingia enabled it to remain an independent position.

County Palatine of Lotharingia[]

In 985,, a scion of the, is mentioned as count palatine of Lotharingia (which by then had been divided into Upper and Lower Lorraine). While his Palatine authority operated over the whole of, the feudal territories of his family were instead scattered around south western, including parts of the around and, and areas around the, and the Rivers.

In continual conflicts with the rivalling, he changed the emphasis of his rule to the southern region and further to the Upper Rhine, where the Ezzonian dynasty governed several counties on both banks of the river. The southernmost point was near.

Counts Palatine of the Rhine[]

Coat of arms of the County Palatine
Rhenish possessions of the Counts Palatine upon the 1329 Treaty of Pavia

From about 1085/86, after the death of the last Ezzonian count palatine, Palatinate authority ceased to have any military significance in Lotharingia. In practice, the Count Palatinate's Palatine authority had collapsed, reducing his successor () to a mere feudal magnate over his own territories - along the Upper Rhine in south-western Franconia. From this time on, his territory became known as the County Palatine of the Rhine (not because Palatine authority existed there, but as an acknowledgement that the Count still held the title, if not the authority, of Count Palatine).

Various noble dynasties competed to be enfeoffed with the Palatinate by the - among them the, the (Count in 1040) and the ( in 1140/41).

The first hereditary Count Palatine of the Rhine was, a member of the and younger half-brother of Emperor. The territories attached to this hereditary office in 1156 started from those held by the Hohenstaufens in the,,, and Kraichgau regions (other branches of the Hohenstaufens received lands in the,, and so forth). Much of this was from their imperial ancestors, the emperors, and apart from Conrad's maternal ancestry, the Counts of. These backgrounds explain the composition of Upper and Rhenish Palatinate in the inheritance centuries onwards. About 1182, Conrad moved his residence from near up the Rhine River to Heidelberg.

Upon Conrad's death in 1195, the Palatinate passed to the through the—secret—marriage of his daughter Agnes with. When Henry's son died without heirs in 1214, the Hohenstaufen king enfeoffed the duke. The Bavarian House of Wittelsbach eventually held the Palatinate territories until 1918.

During a later division of territory among the heirs of Duke, in 1294, the elder branch of the Wittelsbachs came into possession of both the Rhenish Palatinate and the territories in the Bavarian (Bavaria north of the Danube river) with the centre around the town of. As this region was politically connected to the Rhenish Palatinate, the name Upper Palatinate (: Oberpfalz) became common from the early 16th century in contrast to the Lower Palatinate along the Rhine.

With the in 1329, the Wittelsbach emperor, a son of Louis II, returned the Palatinate to his nephews and.

Electorate[]

In the, the Palatinate was recognized as one of the secular, and given the hereditary offices of archsteward (: Erztruchseß, : Archidapifer) of the Empire and (Reichsverweser) of,, the, and southern Germany. From that time forth, the Count Palatine of the Rhine was usually known as the Elector Palatine (: Kurfürst von der Pfalz, : Palatinus elector).

Due to the practice of dividing territories among different branches of the family, by the early 16th century junior lines of the Palatine Wittelsbachs came to rule in,, and in the Lower Palatinate, and in and in the Upper Palatinate. The Elector Palatine, now based in, adopted in the 1530s and in the 1550s.

When the senior branch of the family died out in 1559, the Electorate passed to of, a staunch, and the Palatinate became one of the major centers of Calvinism in Europe, supporting Calvinist rebellions in both the and.

Thirty Years' War[]

Main articles: and

In 1619, accepted the throne of from the Bohemian estates. He was soon defeated by the forces of at the in 1620, and Spanish and Bavarian troops the Palatinate itself. Called "the Winter King" because his reign in Bohemia only lasted one winter, Frederick was put under the ban of the Empire in 1623. Frederick V's territories and his position as Elector were transferred to the Catholic Duke of Bavaria,, of a distantly related branch of the House of Wittelsbach. Although technically Elector Palatine, he was known as the. From 1648 he ruled in Bavaria and the Upper Palatinate alone, but retained all his Electoral dignities and the seniority of the Palatinate Electorate.

After Frederick V's death, his wife, worked tirelessly to have the Palatinate restored to her family and to the Protestant cause. By the in 1648, their son, was restored to the Lower Palatinate, and given a new electoral title, also called "Elector Palatine", but lower in precedence than the other electorates.

Later history[]

In 1685, the Simmern line died out, and the Palatinate was inherited by, Count Palatine of (also Duke of and ), a Catholic. During the reign of (1690-1716) the Electoral residence was moved to Düsseldorf, before being moved back to in 1718 and then to in 1720.

With accession of a Catholic Elector the normal practice of the time would have been for his subjects to become Catholic. Instead, the "Palatine Church Division" was agreed to on November 21, 1705. The terms of the "Division" included a ruling that 5/7ths of the parishes in the Palatinate were to be Reformed; 2/7ths were to be Catholic; none were to be Lutheran.

Contemporary map showing the Palatinate and other lands ruled by Charles Theodore

In 1742, the Palatinate was inherited by, Duke of. Charles Theodore also inherited the when its ruling line became extinct in 1777. The title and authority of Elector Palatine were subsumed into the Electorate of Bavaria, Charles Theodore and his heirs retaining only the single vote and precedence of the Bavarian elector. They continued to use the title "Count Palatine of the Rhine" (: Pfalzgraf bei Rhein, : Comes Palatinus Rheni).

Charles Theodore's heir, Maximilian Joseph, Duke of (on the French border), brought all the Wittelsbach territories under a single rule in 1799. The Palatinate was dissolved in the. First, its left bank territories were occupied, and then annexed, by France starting in 1795; then, in 1803, its right bank territories were taken by the Margrave of. The Rhenish Palatinate, as a distinct territory, disappeared. In 1806, the was abolished, and all the rights and responsibilities of the electors with it.

After the Empire[]

In 1806, Baden was raised to a and parts of the former Palatinate including Mannheim became part of the new grand duchy. At the in 1814 and 1815, the left-bank Palatinate was restored and enlarged by mediatisation (consuming the former, the free imperial city of, and others) up to the new border with France, and given (temporarily) to the Hapsburgs. After this time, it was that was principally known as the Palatinate. The right-bank Palatinate remained with, which had acquired it during the.

In 1816, the Palatinate became a formal part of the Wittelsbach in a pre-arranged exchange for, which Bavaria ceded to Hapsburg. The area remained a part of Bavaria until after the, when it was separated and became a part of the new state of, along with former left bank territories of and.

Coat of arms[]

The full coat of arms of 1703

In 1156, brother of emperor became count palatine. The old coat of arms of the House of Hohenstaufen, the single lion, became coat of arms of the palatinate. By marriage, the Palatinate's arms also became quartered with those of Welf and later Wittelsbach.

For other uses, see.

Not to be confused with.

Of the Unicorn

The unicorn is a that has been described since as a beast with a single large, pointed, spiraling projecting from its forehead. The unicorn was depicted in ancient seals of the and was mentioned by the in accounts of by various writers, including,,, and. The also describes an animal, the, which some versions translate as unicorn.

In European folklore, the unicorn is often depicted as a white -like or -like animal with a long horn and cloven hooves (sometimes a goat's beard). In the and, it was commonly described as an extremely wild creature, a symbol of purity and grace, which could only be captured by a virgin. In the encyclopedias its horn was said to have the power to render poisoned water potable and to heal sickness. In medieval and Renaissance times, the tusk of the was sometimes sold as unicorn horn.

Contents

History

In antiquity

Unicorns are not found in, but rather in the accounts of, for Greek writers of natural history were convinced of the reality of unicorns, which they believed lived in, a distant and fabulous realm for them. The earliest description is from, who in his book ("On ") described them as, fleet of foot, having a horn a and a half (700 mm, 28 inches) in length, and colored white, red and black. must be following Ctesias when he mentions two one-horned animals, the (a kind of ) and the so-called "Indian ass". says that in the there were one-horned horses with stag-like heads. mentions the oryx and an Indian (perhaps a ) as one-horned beasts, as well as "a very fierce animal called the monoceros which has the head of the, the feet of the, and the tail of the, while the rest of the body is like that of the horse; it makes a deep lowing noise, and has a single black horn, which projects from the middle of its forehead, two cubits [900 mm, 35 inches] in length." In On the Nature of Animals (Περὶ Ζῴων Ἰδιότητος, De natura animalium),, quoting Ctesias, adds that India produces also a one-horned horse (iii. 41; iv. 52), and says (xvi. 20) that the monoceros (: μονόκερως) was sometimes called cartazonos (: καρτάζωνος), which may be a form of the Arabic , meaning "".

, a merchant of who lived in the 6th century, made a voyage to and subsequently wrote works on. He gives a description of a unicorn based on four brass figures in the palace of the King of. He states, from report, that "it is impossible to take this ferocious beast alive; and that all its strength lies in its horn. When it finds itself pursued and in danger of capture, it throws itself from a precipice, and turns so aptly in falling, that it receives all the shock upon the horn, and so escapes safe and sound".

A one-horned animal (which may be just a in profile) is found on some from the. Seals with such a design are thought to be a mark of high.

Middle Ages and Renaissance

Youths riding goats (a in antiquity) on 12th-century capitals from the in the. The goats are indistinguishable from unicorns.
Virgin Mary holding the unicorn (c. 1480), detail of the Annunciation with the Unicorn Polyptych,,

knowledge of the fabulous beast stemmed from and ancient sources, and the creature was variously represented as a kind of,, or.

The predecessor of the medieval, compiled in and known as (Φυσιολόγος), popularized an elaborate in which a unicorn, trapped by a maiden (representing the ), stood for the. As soon as the unicorn sees her, it lays its head on her lap and falls asleep. This became a basic emblematic tag that underlies medieval notions of the unicorn, justifying its appearance in every form of Interpretations of the unicorn myth focus on the medieval lore of beguiled lovers,[] whereas some religious writers interpret the unicorn and its death as the. The myths refer to a beast with one horn that can only be tamed by a ; subsequently, some writers translated this into an allegory for Christ's relationship with the Virgin Mary.

The unicorn also figured in : for some 13th-century authors such as and, the lover is attracted to his lady as the unicorn is to the virgin. With the rise of, the unicorn also acquired more orthodox secular meanings, emblematic of chaste love and faithful marriage. It plays this role in 's Triumph of Chastity, and on the reverse of 's portrait of Battista Strozzi, paired with that of her husband (painted c 1472-74), Bianca's triumphal car is drawn by a pair of unicorns.

The is made of "unicorn horns" – almost certainly tusks. The same material was used for ceremonial cups because the unicorn's horn continued to be believed to neutralize poison, following classical authors.

The unicorn, tamable only by a virgin woman, was well established in medieval lore by the time described them as "scarcely smaller than elephants. They have the hair of a buffalo and feet like an elephant's. They have a single large black horn in the middle of the forehead... They have a head like a wild boar's… They spend their time by preference wallowing in and slime. They are very ugly brutes to look at. They are not at all such as we describe them when we relate that they let themselves be captured by virgins, but clean contrary to our notions." It is clear that Marco Polo was describing a rhinoceros.[] In, since the 16th century, Einhorn ("one-horn") has become a descriptor of the various species of rhinoceros.

A Unicorn of the 18th century on an apothecary in

Alicorn

Main article:

The horn itself and the substance it was made of was called alicorn, and it was believed that the horn holds magical and medicinal properties. The physician determined in 1638 that the alleged alicorns were the tusks of narwhals. Such beliefs were examined wittily and at length in 1646 by Sir in his .

False alicorn powder, made from the tusks of or horns of various animals, has been sold in Europe for medicinal purposes as late as 1741. The alicorn was thought to cure many diseases and have the ability to detect poisons, and many physicians would make "cures" and sell them. Cups were made from alicorn for kings and given as a gift; these were usually made of or ivory. Entire horns were very precious in the Middle Ages and were often really the tusks of narwhals.

Entrapment

One traditional method of hunting unicorns involved entrapment by a virgin.

In one of his notebooks wrote:

The unicorn, through its intemperance and not knowing how to control itself, for the love it bears to fair maidens forgets its ferocity and wildness; and laying aside all fear it will go up to a seated damsel and go to sleep in her lap, and thus the hunters take it.

The famous late series of seven hangings are a high point in tapestry manufacture, combining both secular and religious themes. The tapestries now hang in division of the in. In the series, richly dressed, accompanied by huntsmen and hounds, pursue a unicorn against backgrounds or settings of buildings and gardens. They bring the animal to bay with the help of a maiden who traps it with her charms, appear to kill it, and bring it back to a castle; in the last and most famous panel, "The Unicorn in Captivity", the unicorn is shown alive again and happy, chained to a tree surrounded by a fence, in a field of flowers. Scholars conjecture that the red stains on its flanks are not blood but rather the juice from pomegranates, which were a symbol of fertility. However, the true meaning of the mysterious resurrected unicorn in the last panel is unclear. The series was woven about 1500 in the, probably or, for an unknown patron. A set of six on the same theme, treated rather differently, were engraved by the French artist in the 1540s.

Another famous set of six tapestries of ("Lady with the unicorn") in the,, were also woven in the before 1500, and show the five senses (the gateways to temptation) and finally Love ("A mon seul desir" the legend reads), with unicorns featured in each piece. Facsimiles of these unicorn tapestries were woven for permanent display in,, to take the place of a set recorded in the castle in a.

A rather rare, late-15th-century, variant depiction of the in religious art combined the with the themes of the Hunt of the Unicorn and Virgin and Unicorn, so popular in secular art. The unicorn already functioned as a symbol of the and whether this meaning is intended in many prima facie secular depictions can be a difficult matter of scholarly interpretation. There is no such ambiguity in the scenes where the archangel is shown blowing a horn, as hounds chase the unicorn into the Virgin's arms, and a little Christ Child descends on rays of light from God the Father. The finally banned this somewhat over-elaborated, if charming, depiction, partly on the grounds of realism, as no one now believed the unicorn to be a real animal.

scholars describe unicorns being captured by a hunter standing in front of a tree, the unicorn goaded into charging; the hunter would step aside the last moment and the unicorn would embed its horn deeply into the tree (See annotations of, Act 4, scene 3, c. line 341: "wert thou the unicorn, pride and wrath would confound thee and make thine own self the conquest of thy fury".)

Heraldry

In, a unicorn is often depicted as a horse with a goat's cloven hooves and beard, a lion's tail, and a slender, spiral horn on its forehead (non-equine attributes may be replaced with equine ones, as can be seen from the following gallery). Whether because it was an emblem of the Incarnation or of the fearsome animal passions of raw nature, the unicorn was not widely used in early heraldry, but became popular from the 15th century. Though sometimes shown collared and chained, which may be taken as an indication that it has been tamed or tempered, it is more usually shown collared with a broken chain attached, showing that it has broken free from its bondage.

Scotland

See also:

In heraldry the unicorn is best known as the symbol of. The unicorn was chosen because it was seen as a proud and haughty beast which would rather die than be captured, just as Scots would fight to remain sovereign and unconquered. Two unicorns supported the of the King of Scots, and since the of England and Scotland, the have been supported by a unicorn along with an English lion. Two versions of the royal arms exist: that used in Scotland gives more emphasis to the Scottish elements, placing the unicorn on the left and giving it a crown, whereas the version used in England and elsewhere gives the English elements more prominence.

Golden coins known as the and half-unicorn, both with a unicorn on the, were used in Scotland in the 15th and 16th century. In the same realm, carved unicorns were often used as finials on the pillars of, and denoted that the settlement was a. Certain noblemen such as the were given special permission to use the unicorn in their arms, as an. The crest for bears a unicorn head.

Gallery

Unicorns as heraldic charges:

Unicorns as supporters:

Possible origins

Hunts for an actual animal as the basis of the unicorn myth, accepting the conception of writers in Antiquity that it really existed somewhere at the edge of the known earth, have added a further layer of about the unicorn. These have taken various forms, interpreted in a scientific, rather than a wonder-filled manner, to accord with modern perceptions of reality.

Fabricated evidence

Among numerous finds of bones found at in 's, some were selected and reconstructed by the mayor of,, as a unicorn in 1663 (illustration, right). Guericke's so-called unicorn had only two legs, and was constructed from bones of a and a, with the horn of a. The skeleton was examined by, who had previously doubted the existence of the unicorn, but was convinced by it.

maintained that, as the unicorn was cloven-hoofed, it must therefore have a cloven skull (making the growth of a single horn impossible); as if to disprove this, Dr., a professor, artificially fused the horn buds of a together, creating the external appearance of a one-horned bull.[]

Unicorn seals of the Indus Valley Civilization

Indus valley seals showing 'unicorns' ()

The first objects unearthed from and, major sites of the, were small stone inscribed with elegant depictions of animals, including a unicorn-like figure, and marked with writing which still baffles scholars. These seals are dated back to 2500 B.C.

The "unicorn" figures on the seals have been interpreted as representations of —a type of large wild cattle that formerly inhabited Europe, Asia and North Africa—or derivatives of aurochs. It is suggested that as the animal is always shown in profile, only one of the two horns is seen.

Elasmotherium or rhinoceros

One suggestion is that the unicorn is based on the extinct rhinocerus species , a huge mammal native to the, south of the range of the woolly rhinoceros of Ice Age Europe. Elasmotherium looked little like a horse, but it had a large single horn in its forehead. It became extinct about the same time as the rest of the glacial age.

However, according to the (Nordic Familybook) and science writer the animal may have survived long enough to be remembered in the legends of the native European peoples as a huge black bull with a single horn in the forehead.

In support of this claim, it has been noted that the 13th century traveller claimed to have seen a unicorn in, but his description makes it clear to the modern reader that he actually saw a.

More recent findings seem to place humans and the elasmotherium in the same area at the same time. The fragmentary skull of an Elasmotherium sibiricum was found in and carbon-dated in 2015 as ca. 30,000 years old. Skulls of found in the same area date back up to 45,000 years, this meaning that our species and this type of mammal possibly coexisted in Western Siberia for thousands of years.

Single-horned goat

The connection that is sometimes made with a single-horned goat derives from the vision of Daniel:

And as I was considering, behold, a he-goat came from the west over the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground: and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes. ()

antiquities researcher and his wife also produced artificial unicorns dubbed "the Living Unicorn", remodelling the "horn buds" of goat kids in such a way that their horns grew together into a single one. Zell theorized that this process might have been used in the past to create court curiosities and natural herd leaders, because the goat was able to use this long straight horn effectively as a weapon and a tool. often depicts unicorns as small, with cloven hooves and beards, sometimes resembling goats more than horses with horns. This process is possible only with animals that naturally have horns. For a time, a few of these unicorns travelled with the.

Narwhals

The unicorn horns often found in and other contexts in Medieval and Europe, were very often examples of the distinctive straight spiral single tusks of (Monodon monoceros), an, as zoologist established in 1638. They were brought south as a very valuable trade, and sold as horns from the legendary unicorn; being of, they passed the various tests intended to spot fake unicorn horns. As these 'horns' were considered to have powers, and other northern traders were able to sell them for many times their weight in. kept a "unicorn horn" in her cabinet of curiosities, brought back by explorer on his return from in 1577. The usual depiction of the spiral unicorn horn in art, derives from these.

The truth of the tusk's origin developed gradually during the Age of Exploration, as explorers and naturalists began to visit regions themselves. In 1555, published a drawing of a fish-like creature with a "horn" on its forehead.

Oryx

One-horned.

are with two long, thin horns projecting from its forehead. Some have suggested that seen from the side and from a distance, they look something like horses with single horns (although the 'horn' projects backward, not forward as in the classic unicorn). Conceivably, travellers in could have derived the tale of the unicorn from these animals. However, classical authors seem to distinguish clearly between oryxes and unicorns. The , published in 1486, was the first printed illustrated travel-book, describing a to, and thence to by way of. It featured many large by, who went on the trip, mostly detailed and accurate views of cities. The book also contained pictures of animals seen on the journey, including a,, and unicorn—presumably an oryx, which they could easily have seen on their route.

Eland

In, the have somewhat mystical or spiritual connotations, perhaps at least partly because these very large antelopes will defend themselves against lions and are able to kill these fearsome predators. Eland are very frequently depicted in the of the region, which implies they were viewed as having a strong connection to the other world, and in several languages the word for eland and for dance is the same; significant because shamans used dance as their means of drawing power from the other world. Eland fat was used when mixing the pigments for these pictographs, and in the preparation of many medicines.

This special regard for eland may well have been picked up by early travellers. There is a purported unicorn horn in the castle of the chief of the in Scotland, which has been identified as that of an eland.[]

Genetic disorders of horned or antlered animals

A new possibility for the inspiration of the unicorn came in 2008 with the discovery of a in with a single antler. Single-antlered deer are not uncommon; however, the placement of the horn in the middle is very unusual. Fulvio Fraticelli, scientific director of Rome's zoo, has said "Generally, the horn is on one side (of the head) rather than being at the center. This looks like a complex case." Fraticelli also acknowledges that the placement of the antler could have been the result of some type of trauma in the life of the deer.

A similar specimen was filmed in July 2017 near the, in central Italy.

are not, although this distinction was not always made historically.

Similar mythical animals

Biblical

Unicorn on a 1213 church floor in

An animal called the (: רְאֵם‎) is mentioned in several places in the, often as a metaphor representing strength. "The allusions to the re'em as a wild, un-tamable animal of great strength and agility, with mighty horn or horns (Job xxxix. 9–12; Ps. xxii. 21, xxix. 6; Num. xxiii. 22, xxiv. 8; Deut. xxxiii. 17; comp. Ps. xcii. 11), best fit the (Bos primigenius). This view is supported by the Assyrian rimu, which is often used as a metaphor of strength, and is depicted as a powerful, fierce, wild mountain bull with large horns." This animal was often depicted in ancient art in profile, with only one horn visible.

The translators of the of the (1611) followed the Greek (monokeros) and the Latin (unicornis) and employed unicorn to translate re'em, providing a recognizable animal that was proverbial for its un-tamable nature. The translates this term "wild ox" in each case.

  • "God brought them out of Egypt; he hath as it were the strength of an unicorn."—
  • "God brought him forth out of Egypt; he hath as it were the strength of an unicorn."—
  • "His glory is like the firstling of his bullock, and his horns are like the horns of unicorns: with them he shall push the people together to the ends of the earth."—
  • "Will the unicorn be willing to serve thee, or abide by thy crib? Canst thou bind the unicorn with his band in the furrow? or will he harrow the valleys after thee? Wilt thou trust him, because his strength is great? or wilt thou leave thy labour to him? Wilt thou believe him, that he will bring home thy seed, and gather it into thy barn?"—
  • "Save me from the lion's mouth; for thou hast heard me from the horns of unicorns."—
  • "He maketh them [the cedars of Lebanon] also to skip like a calf; Lebanon and Sirion like a young unicorn."—
  • "But my horn shalt thou exalt like the horn of the unicorn: I shall be anointed with fresh oil."—
  • "And the unicorns shall come down with them, and the bullocks with their bulls; and their land shall be soaked with blood, and their dust made fat with fatness."—

The classical Jewish understanding of the Bible did not identify the Re'em animal as the unicorn. However, some rabbis in the debate the proposition that the animal (Exodus 25, 26, 35, 36 and 39; Numbers 4; and Ezekiel 16:10) was a domestic, single-horned creature that existed in Moses' time, or that it was similar to the keresh animal described in 's Talmudic dictionary as "a kind of antelope, unicorn".

Chinese mythology

Pottery Unicorn. Northern Wei. Shaanxi History Museum

The (: 麒麟), a creature in, is sometimes called "the Chinese unicorn", and some ancient accounts describe a single horn as its defining feature. However, it is more accurately described as a that looks less unicorn than, with the body of a deer, the head of a lion, green and a long forwardly-curved horn. The version (kirin) more closely resembles the Western unicorn, even though it is based on the Chinese qilin. The Quẻ Ly of myth, similarly sometimes mistranslated "unicorn" is a symbol of wealth and prosperity that made its first appearance during the Duong Dynasty, about 600 CE, to Emperor Duong Cao To, after a military victory which resulted in his conquest of. In November 2012 the History Institute of the DPRK Academy of Social Sciences, as well as the, reported that the had been found, which is associated with a kirin ridden by.

Beginning in the, the qilin became associated with, after 's to brought a pair of the long-necked animals and introduced them at court in as qilin. The resemblance to the qilin was noted in the giraffe's (bony protrusions from the skull resembling horns), graceful movements, and peaceful demeanor.

(117) also mentioned Bo-horse (: 駮馬; : bómǎ), a chimera horse with ox tail, single horn, white body, and its sound like person calling. The creature is lived at Honest-head Mountain. in his jiangfu said that Bo-horse able to walk on water. Another similar creature also mentioned in (80) to live in Mount Winding-Centre as Bo (: 駮; : ), but with black tail, tiger's teeth and claws, and also devour leopards and tigers.

See also

References

  1. ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information. 27. 1911. p. 581. 
  2. . "45"..  (quoted by )
  3. . "Book 3. Chapter 2.".. trans. William Ogle. Archived from on 2008-05-01. 
  4. . "Book 2. Chapter 1.".. trans.. Archived from on 2007-06-30. 
  5. . "Book 15. Chapter 1. Section 56.".. 
  6. . "Book 8, Chapter 31".. trans. John Bostock.  Also, and.
  7. (220) [circa]. "Book 3. Chapter 41.".. 
  8. (220) [circa]. "Book 4. Chapter 52.".. 
  9. (220) [circa]. "Book 16. Chapter 20.".. 
  10. . "Book 11. Chapter 7.".. 
  11. . Sscnet.ucla.edu. Retrieved on 2011-03-20.
  12. Marilyn Aronberg Lavin, 2002. Piero della Francesca, pp260-65.
  13. Linda S Godfrey (2009). Mythical creatures. Chelsea House Publishers. p. 28.  . 
  14. (1646). "Book 3. Chapter 23.".. 
  15. Willy Ley (1962). Exotic Zoology. Viking Press. pp. 20–22.  . 
  16. Shepard, Odell (1930).. London, Unwin and Allen.  . 
  17. . BBC News. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2017. 
  18. G Schiller, Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. I,1971 (English trans from German), Lund Humphries, London, pp. 52-4 & figs 126-9,  ,
  19. The Complete Works of Shakespeare, Fourth Edition,, pg. 1281;The Norton Shakespeare, Second Edition, pg 2310, footnote 9; , Second Edition, page 1515
  20. ^ Friar, Stephen (1987). A New Dictionary of Heraldry. London: Alphabooks/. pp. 353–354.  . 
  21. ^ Nisbet, Alexander (1816).. Edinburgh: William Blackwood. 
  22. George Way, Romilly Squire; HarperCollins, 1995; page 84 "Cunningham CREST A unicorn's head couped Argent armed Or MOTTO 'Over fork over'
  23. Robin Meadows, "The Unicorn, the Mermaid, and the Centaur" Zoogoer, November–December 2006.
  24. . Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  25. Source: North Park University, Chicago, Illinois. Image:
  26. Geer, Alexandra Anna Enrica van der (2008). . Brill, Leiden.  . pp. 112-114.
  27. R. Norman Owen-Smith, ch. 3 in Ross D. E. MacPhee, ed. Extinctions in Near Time: Causes, Contexts, and Consequences (in series Advances in Vertebrate Paleontology) 1999. Springer.   pp. 57 ff
  28. ^ Mark Piggott, Unicorn-like creatures did exist and probably lived alongside humans, in International Business Times, 29 March 2016. Accessed 5 April 2016.
  29. Andrei Valerievich Shpansky et al., The Quaternary Mammals from Kozhamzhar Locality (Pavlodar Region, Kazakhstan), in, February 2016, p. 197. Accessed 5 April 2016.
  30. . Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  31. . Retrieved 2007-01-20. 
  32. Daston, Lorraine and Katharine Park. Wonders and the Order of Nature, 1150–1750. New York: Zone Books, 2001.  
  33. Falconi, Marta (2008-06-11).. NBCNews.com. Associated Press. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 
  34. . repubblica.it (in Italian). Retrieved 12 July 2017. 
  35. Ps 21:22, Ps 28:6, Ps 77:69, Ps 91:11, Is 34:7. The Latin rhinoceros is employed in Nm 23:22, Nm24:8, Dt 33:17, Job 39:9–10
  36. ,, November 29, 2012 
  37. Quinn, Ben.. The Guardian. Retrieved 5 August 2013. 
  38. Wilson, Samuel M. "The Emperor's Giraffe", Natural History Vol. 101, No. 12, December 1992 . Archived from on 2008-12-02. Retrieved 2012-04-14. 
  39. Strassberg, Richard E. (2002). A Chinese Bestiary: Strange Creatures from the Guideways Through Mountains and Seas. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 116–117, 127–128.  . 

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Zahra Doe Morbi gravida, sem non egestas ullamcorper, tellus ante laoreet nisl, id iaculis urna eros vel turpis curabitur.

3 Comments

Zahra Doejune 2, 2017
Morbi gravida, sem non egestas ullamcorper, tellus ante laoreet nisl, id iaculis urna eros vel turpis curabitur.
Zahra Doejune 2, 2017
Morbi gravida, sem non egestas ullamcorper, tellus ante laoreet nisl, id iaculis urna eros vel turpis curabitur.
Zahra Doejune 2, 2017
Morbi gravida, sem non egestas ullamcorper, tellus ante laoreet nisl, id iaculis urna eros vel turpis curabitur.

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