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"Donizetti" redirects here. For other uses, see.

Gaetano Donizetti
(Portrait by Giuseppe Rillosi)

Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (Italian:  (About this sound ); 29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer. Along with and, Donizetti was a leading composer of the opera style during the first half of the nineteenth century. Donizetti's close association with the bel canto style was undoubtedly an influence on other composers such as Giuseppe Verdi (1813–1901). wie flirten verheiratete männer

Donizetti was born in in. Although he did not come from a musical background, at an early age he was taken under the wing of composer who had enrolled him by means of a full scholarship in a school which he had set up. There he received detailed training in the arts of and. Mayr was also instrumental in obtaining a place for the young man at the Bologna Academy, where, at the age of 19, he wrote his first one-act opera, the comedy , which may not have ever been performed during his lifetime.

Over the course of his career, Donizetti wrote almost 70 operas. An offer in 1822 from, the impresario of the in Naples, which followed the composer's ninth opera, led to his move to that city and his residency there which lasted until the production of in January 1844. In all, Naples presented 51 of Donizetti's operas.

Donizetti as a schoolboy in Bergamo

Before 1830, success came primarily with his comic operas, the serious ones failing to attract significant audiences. However, his first notable success came with an , , which was presented in 1822 in Rome. In 1830, when was premiered, Donizetti made a major impact on the Italian and international opera scene and this shifted the balance of success away from primarily comedic operas, although even after that date, his best-known works included comedies such as (1832) and (1843). Significant historical dramas did appear and became successful; they included (the first to have a libretto written by ) given in Naples in 1835, and one of the most successful Neapolitan operas, in 1837. Up to that point, all of his operas had been set to Italian libretti.

Donizetti found himself increasingly chafing against the censorial limitations which existed in Italy (and especially in Naples). From about 1836, he became interested in working in Paris, where he saw much greater freedom to choose subject matter, in addition to receiving larger fees and greater prestige. From 1838 onward, with an offer from the Paris Opéra for two new works, he spent a considerable period of the following ten years in that city, and set several operas to French texts as well as overseeing staging of his Italian works. The first opera was a French version of the then-unperformed which, in April 1840, was revised to become . Two new operas were also given in Paris at that time.

As the 1840s progressed, Donizetti moved regularly between Naples, Rome, Paris, and Vienna continuing to compose and stage his own operas as well as those of other composers. But from around 1843, severe illness began to take hold and to limit his activities. Eventually, by early 1846 he was obliged to be confined to an institution for the mentally ill and, by late 1847, friends had him moved back to Bergamo, where he died in April 1848.


Early life and musical education in Bergamo and Bologna[]

The youngest of three sons, Donizetti was born in 1797 in Bergamo's Borgo Canale quarter located just outside the city walls. His family was very poor and had no tradition of music, his father Andrea wie flirten verheiratete männer being the caretaker of the town pawnshop. Simone Mayr, a German composer of internationally successful operas, had become at Bergamo's principal church in 1802. He founded the Lezioni Caritatevoli school in Bergamo in 1805 for the purpose of providing musical training, including classes in literature, beyond what choirboys ordinarily received up until the time that their voices broke. In 1807, Andrea Donizetti attempted to enroll both his sons, but the elder, Giuseppe (then 18), was considered too old. Gaetano (then 9) was accepted.

Johann Simone Mayr, circa  1810

While not especially successful as a choirboy during the first three trial months of 1807 (there being some concern about a difetto di gola, a throat defect), Mayr was soon reporting that Gaetano "surpasses all the others in musical progress" and he was able to persuade the authorities that the young boy's talents were worthy of keeping him in the school. He remained there for nine years, until 1815.

However, as Donizetti scholar notes, in 1809 he was threatened with having to leave because his voice was changing. In 1810 he applied for and was accepted by the local art school, the Academia Carrara, but it is not known whether he attended classes. Then, in 1811, Mayr once again intervened. Having written both libretto and music for a "pasticcio-farsa", Il piccolo compositore di musica, as the final concert of the academic year, Mayr cast five young students, among them his young pupil Donizetti as "the little composer". As Ashbrook states, this "was nothing less than Mayr's argument that Donizetti be allowed to continue his musical studies".

Donizetti as a schoolboy

The piece was performed on 13 September 1811 and included the composer character stating the following:

Ah, by Bacchus, with this aria / I'll have universal applause. / They'll say to me, "Bravo, Maestro! / I, with a sufficiently modest air, / Will go around with my head bent... / I’ll have eulogies in the newspaper / I know how to make myself immortal.

In reply to the chiding which comes from the other four characters in the piece after the "little composer" 's boasts, in the drama the "composer" responds with:

I have a vast mind, swift talent, ready fantasy—and I'm a thunderbolt at composing.flirten am telefon mit einem mann id="cite_ref-WEIN_12-1" class="reference">

The performance also included a waltz which Donizetti played and for which he received credit in the libretto. In singing this piece, all five young men were given opportunities to show off their musical knowledge and talent.

The following two years were somewhat precarious for the young Donizetti: the 16-year-old created quite a reputation for what he did do—which is regularly to fail to attend classes—and also for what he did instead, which as to make something of a spectacle of himself in the town.

However, in spite of all this, Mayr not only persuaded Gaetano's parents to allow him to continue studies, but also secured funding from the Congregazione di Carità in Bergamo for two years of scholarships. In addition, he provided the young musician with letters of recommendation to both the publisher as well as to the Marchese Francesco Sampieri in Bologna (who would find him suitable lodging) and where, at the Liceo Musicale, he was given the opportunity to study musical structure under the renowned Padre.

In Bologna, he would justify the faith which Mayr had placed in him. Author John Stewart Allitt describes his 1816 "initial exercises in operatic style", the opera Il pigmalione, as well as his composition of portions of Olympiade and L'ira d'Achille in 1817, as two being no more than "suggest[ing] the work of a student". Encouraged by Mayr to return to Bergamo in 1817, he began his "quartet years" as well as composing piano pieces and, most likely, being a performing member of quartets where he would have also heard music of other composers. In addition, he began seeking employment.

Career as an opera composer[]

1818–1822: Early compositions[]

After extending his time in Bologna for as long as he could, Donizetti was forced to return to Bergamo since no other prospects appeared. Various small opportunities came his way and, at the same time, he made the acquaintance of several of the singers appearing during the 1817/18 Carnival season. Among them was the soprano and her husband, the bass.

The young Donizetti
Bartolomeo Merelli, 1840

A coincidental meeting around April 1818 with an old school friend, (who was to go on to a distinguished career), led to an offer to compose the music from a libretto which became . Without a commission from any opera house, Donizetti decided to write the music first and then try to find a company to accept it. He was able to do so when, the of the (an early theatre built in 1629, which later became the Teatro Goldoni) in Venice accepted it. Thus Enrico was presented on 14 November 1818, but with little success, the audience appearing to be more interested in the newly re-decorated opera house rather than the performances, which suffered from the last-minute withdrawal of the soprano Adelaide Catalani due to stage fright and the consequent omission of some her music. Musicologist and Donizetti scholar provides a quotation from a review in the Nuovo osservatore veneziano of 17 November in which the reviewer notes some of these performance issues which faced the composer, but he adds: "one cannot but recognize a regular handling and expressive quality in his style. For these the public wanted to salute Signor Donizetti on stage at the end of the opera."

For Donizetti, the result was a further commission and, using another of Merelli's librettos, this became the one-act, which was presented a month later. However, with no other work forthcoming, the composer once again returned to Bergamo, where a cast of singers made up from the Venice production the month before, presented Enrico di Borgogna in his home town on 26 December. He spent the early months of 1819 working on some sacred and instrumental music, but little else came of his efforts until the latter part of the year when he wrote from a libretto by Gherardo Bevilacqua-Aldobrandini. The opera was given first at the Teatro San Samuele in Venice in December. Other work included expansion of Il nozze in villa, a project which he had started in mid-1819, but the opera was not presented until the carnival season of 1820/21 in Mantua. Little more is known about it except its lack of success and the fact the score has totally disappeared.

1822–1830: Rome, Naples, Milan[]

Success in Rome[]

After these minor compositions under the commission of Paolo Zancla, Donizetti retreated to Bergamo once again to examine how he could make his career move along. From the point of view of Donizetti's evolving style, Ashbrook states that, in order to please the opera-going public in the first quarter of the 19th century, it was necessary to cater to their tastes, to make a major impression at the first performance (otherwise there would be no others), and to emulate the preferred musical style of the day, that of whose music "was the public's yardstick when they were assessing new scores".

Donizetti as a young man
Jacopo Ferretti, Italian librettist and poet, 1784–1852

Remaining in Bergamo until October 1821, the composer busied himself with a variety of instrumental and choral pieces, but during that year, he had been in negotiation with Giovanni Paterni, of the in Rome, and by 17 June had received a contract to compose another opera from a libretto being prepared by Merelli. It is unclear as to how this connection came about: whether it had been at Merelli's suggestion or whether, as William Ashbrook speculates, it had been Mayr who had initially been approached by Paterni to write the opera but who, due to advancing age, had recommended his prize pupil. This new opera seria became Donizetti's , his ninth work. The libretto had been started by August and, between then and 1 October when Donizetti was provided with a letter of introduction from Mayr to, the Roman poet and librettist who was to later feature in the young composer's career, much of the music had been composed.

The twenty-four-year-old composer arrived in Rome on 21 October, but plans for staging the opera were plagued with a major problem: the tenor cast in the major role died a few days before the opening night on 28 January 1822 and the role had to be re-written for a musico, a mezzo-soprano singing a male role, a not uncommon feature of the era and of Rossini's operas. Opening night was a triumph for Donizetti; as reported in the weekly Notizie del giorno:

A new and very happy hope is rising for the Italian musical theatre. The young Maestro Gaetano Donizetti...has launched himself strongly in his truly serious opera, Zoraida. Unanimous, sincere, universal was the applause he justly collected from the capacity audience....

Donizetti moves to Naples[]

Soon after 19 February, Donizetti left Rome for Naples, where he was to settle for a large part of life. It appears that he had asked Mayr for a letter of introduction, but his fame had preceded him for, on 28th, the announcement of the summer season at the Teatro Nuovo in the Giornale del Regno delle Due Sicilie stated that it would include a Donizetti opera, describing the composer as:

a young pupil of one of the most valued Maestros of the century, Mayer (sic), a large part of whose glory might be called ours, he having modeled his style on that of the great luminaries of the musical art sprung up among us. [His opera in Rome] was accepted with the most flattering applause.
Domenico Barbaja in Naples in the 1820s
Teatro di San Carlo, c. 1830

News of this work impressed, the prominent of the and other royal houses in the city such as the smaller Teatro Nuovo and the. By late March Donizetti had been offered a contract not only to compose new operas, but also to be responsible for preparing performances of new productions by other composers whose work had been given elsewhere. On 12 May the first new opera, , was given at the Nuovo "with hot enthusiasm", as scholar Herbert Weinstock states.

It ran for 28 consecutive evenings, followed by 20 more in July, receiving high praise in the Giornale. One of the later performances became the occasion for Donizetti to meet the then-21-year-old music student,, an event recounted by some sixty years later.

The second new work, which appeared six weeks later on 29 June, was a one-act farsa—. Ashbrook's comments—which reinforce those of Giornali critic who reviewed the work on 1 July—recognize an important aspect of Donizetti's burgeoning musical style: [he shows that] "his concern with the dramatic essence of opera rather than the mechanical working out of musical formulas was, even at this early stage, was already present and active."

Late July 1822 to February 1824: Assignments in Milan and Rome[]

On 3 August for what would become , ossia I pirati, Donizetti entered into a contract with librettist, but he was over-committed and unable to deliver anything until 3 October. The premiere had been scheduled for only about three weeks away and, due to the delays and illnesses among the cast members, it did not receive good reviews, although it did receive a respectable 12 performances.

Librettist Felice Romani

Returning north via Rome, Donizetti signed a contract for performances of Zoraida for the Teatro Argentina which included the requirement that the libretto to be revised by Ferretti, given Donizetti's low opinion of the work of the original Neapolitan librettist, : he referred to it as "a great barking". In addition to the revision, he committed to write another new opera for the Rome's Teatro Valle which would also be set to a libretto written by Ferretti. Donizetti finally returned to Naples by late March.

Immediately busy in the spring months of 1823 with a cantata, an opera seria for the San Carlo, and an opera buffa for the Nuovo, Donizetti also had to work on the revised Zoraide for Rome. Unfortunately however, the music set for the San Carlo premiere of on 2 July was described in the Giornali as " could not recognize the composer of La zingara." It received only one performance, while his two-act farsa, Il fortunato inganno, given in September at the Teatro del Fondo received only three performances.

In October and for the remainder of the year, he was back in Rome where time was spent adding five new pieces to Zoraida which was performed at the Teatro Argentina on 7 January 1824. However, it was less successful than the original version. The second opera for Rome's Teatro Valle also had a libretto by Ferretti, one which has since been regarded as one of his best. It was the opera buffa (The Tutor Embarrassed), the premiere of which took place on 4 February 1824 and "was greeted with wild enthusiasm [and] it was with this opera that [...] Donizetti had his first really lasting success" Allitt notes that with a good libretto to hand, "Donizetti never failed its dramatic content" and he continues by saying that "Donizetti had a far better sense of what would succeed on the stage than his librettists."

1824–1830: Palermo and Naples[]

Back in Naples, he embarked upon his first venture into English with the opera semiseria, , which was given only seven performances in July 1824 at the Nuovo. The critical reaction in the Giornali some months later focused on the weaknesses of the semiseria genre itself, although it did describe Donizetti's music for Emilia as "pretty". The composer's activities in Naples became limited because 1825 was a Holy Year in Rome and the death of Ferdinand I in Naples caused little or no opera to be produced in both cities for a considerable time.

Giovanni Battista Rubini

However, he did obtain a year-long position for the 1825/26 season at the Teatro Carolino in Palermo, where he became musical director (as well teaching at the Conservatory). There, he staged his 1824 version of as well as his new opera . But overall, his experience in Palermo does not appear to have been pleasant, mainly because of the poorly managed theatre, the continual indisposition of singers, or their failure to appear on time. These issues caused a delay until January 1827 for the premiere of Alahor, after which he went back in Naples in February, but with no specific commitments until midsummer.

That summer was to see the successful presentations at the Teatro Nuovo of the adapted version of L'ajo nell'imbarazzo given as and, a month later, a one-act or opera, , a for the birthday of, which contained some florid music for the tenor ; but it only received three performances.

Writer John Stewart Allitt observes that, by 1827/28, three important elements in Donizetti's professional and personal life came together: Firstly, he met and began to work with the librettist who wrote eleven librettos for him, beginning with in 1827 and continuing until 1833. Gilardoni shared with the composer a very good sense of what would work on stage. Next, the Naples impresario Barbaja engaged him to write twelve new operas during the following three years. In addition, he was to be appointed to the position of Director of the Royal Theatres of Naples beginning in 1829, a job that the composer accepted and held until 1838. Like Rossini, who had occupied this position before him, Donizetti was free to compose for other opera houses. Finally, in May 1827 he announced his engagement to Virginia Vasselli, the daughter of the Roman family who had befriended him there and who was then 18 years old.

The couple were married in July 1828 and immediately settled in a new home in Naples. Within two months he had written another opera semiseria, , from a libretto by Gilardoni. It was their fourth collaboration, and became a success not only in Naples but also in Rome over the 1830/31 season. Writing about the Naples premiere, the correspondent of the stated: "The situations that the libretto offers are truly ingenious and do honour to the poet, Gilardoni. Maestro Donizetti has known how to take advantage of them...", therefore a reaffirmation of the growing dramatic skills displayed by the young composer.

1830–1838: International fame[]

Giuditta Pasta
Gaetano Donizetti
(posthumous portrait by )

In 1830, Donizetti scored his most acclaimed and his first international success with given at the Teatro Carcano in Milan on 26 December 1830 with in the title role. Also, the acclaimed tenor, Giovanni Battista Rubini, appeared in the role of Percy. With this opera, Donizetti achieved instant fame throughout Europe. Performances were staged "up and down the Italian peninsula" between 1830 and 1834 and then throughout Europe's capitals well into the 1840s, with revivals being presented up to about 1881. London was the first European capital to see the work; it was given at the King's Theatre on 8 July 1831.

In regard to which operatic form Donizetti was to have the greater success, when the semi-seria work of 1828, Gianni di Calais, was given in Rome very soon after Anna Bolena had appeared, the Gazzetta privilegiata di Milano described the relationship between the two forms of opera and concluded that "in two classes—tragic and comic—very close together...the former wins incomparably over the latter". This appears to have solidified Donizetti's reputation as a composer of successful serious opera, although other comedies were to appear quite quickly.

With his commissions, the years from 1830 to 1835 saw a huge outpouring of work; , a comedy produced in 1832, came soon after Anna Bolena's success and it is deemed to be one of the masterpieces of 19th-century .

Then came a rapid series of operas from Naples including (May 1831); (June 1831); and (January 1832). Two new operas were presented in Milan: (April 1831) and (March 1832). Rome presented (January 1833) and (September 1833). Otto mesi in due ore (1833) was given in Livorno and (March 1833) was given in Florence.

Librettist Salvadore Cammarano

After the successful staging of in 1833, his reputation was further consolidated, and Donizetti followed the paths of both and Bellini by visiting Paris, where his was given at the in March 1835. However, it suffered by comparison to Bellini's which appeared at the same time.

Donizetti returned from Paris to oversee the staging of on 26 September 1835. It was set to a libretto by, the first of eight for the composer. The opera was based on , the novel by, and it was to become his most famous opera, one of the high points of the bel canto tradition, the opera reaching a stature similar to that achieved by 's .

Donizetti, c. 1835

This dramma tragico appeared at a time when several factors were moving Donizetti's reputation as a composer of opera to greater heights: had recently retired and had died shortly before the premiere of Lucia leaving Donizetti as "the sole reigning genius of Italian opera". Not only were conditions ripe for Donizetti to achieve greater fame as a composer, but there was also an interest across the continent of Europe in the history and culture of Scotland. The perceived romance of its violent wars and feuds, as well as its folklore and mythology, intrigued 19th century readers and audiences, and Scott made use of these stereotypes in his novel.

At the same time, continental audiences of that time seemed to be fascinated by the of 16th century English history, revolving as it does around the lives of (and his six wives), ("Bloody Mary"),, as well as the doomed Mary Stuart, known in England as. Many of these historical characters appear in Donizetti's dramas, operas which both preceded and followed Anna Bolena. They were , based on 's Leicester and 's Amy Robsart (given in Naples in July 1829 and revised in 1830). Then came (Mary Stuart), based on 's play and given at La Scala in December 1835. It was followed by the third in the "Three Donizetti Queens" series, , which features the relationship between Elizabeth and the Earl of Essex. It was given at the San Carlo in Naples in October 1837.

As Donizetti's fame grew, so did his engagements. He was offered commissions by both in Venice—a house he had not visited for about seventeen years and to which he returned to present on 4 February 1836. Just as importantly, after the success of his Lucia at the in Paris in December 1837, approaches came from the. As and William Ashbrook have stated, "negotiations with Charles Duponchel, the director of the Opéra, took on a positive note for the first time" and "the road to Paris lay open for him", the first Italian to obtain a commission to write a real grand opera.

1838–1840: Donizetti abandons Naples for Paris[]

In October 1838, Donizetti moved to Paris vowing never to have dealings with the San Carlo again after the King of Naples banned the production of on the grounds that such a sacred subject was inappropriate for the stage. In Paris, he offered Poliuto to the Opéra and it was set to a new and expanded four-act French-language libretto by with the title, . Performed in April 1840, it was his first in the French tradition and was quite successful. Before leaving that city in June 1840, he had time to oversee the translation of Lucia di Lammermoor into Lucie de Lammermoor as well as to write , his first opera written specifically to a French libretto. This became another success.

1840–1843: Back and forth between Paris, Milan, Vienna, and Naples[]

Deleidi's Donizetti and His Friends: (from left) Michele Bettinelli, Donizetti, Antonio Dolci,, and the artist, in Bergamo 1840

After leaving Paris in June 1840, Donizetti was to write ten new operas, although not all were performed in his lifetime. Before arriving in Milan by August 1840, he visited Switzerland and then his hometown of Bergamo, eventually reaching Milan where he was to prepare an Italian version of La fille du régiment. No sooner was that accomplished than he was back in Paris to adapt the never-performed 1839 libretto as the French-language , the premiere of which took place on 2 December 1840. Then he rushed back to Milan for Christmas, but returned almost immediately and by late February 1841 was preparing a new opera, . However, it was not staged until 1860.

Donizetti returned once more to Milan where he stayed with the accommodating Giuseppina Appiano Stringeli with whom he had a pleasant time. Unwilling to leave Milan, but encouraged to return to Paris by Michele Accursi (with whom the composer was to be involved in Paris in 1843), he oversaw the December production of at La Scala, and began writing in preparation for March 1842 travels to Vienna, in which city he had been engaged by the royal court.

During this time and prior to leaving for Vienna, he was persuaded to conduct the premiere of Rossini's in Bologna in March 1842. Friends—including his brother-in-law, Antonio Vasselli (known as Totò)—continually attempted to persuade him to take up an academic position in Bologna rather than the Vienna court engagement, if for no other reason that it would give the composer a base from which to work and teach and not be continually exhausting himself with travel between cities. But in a letter to Vasselli, he adamantly refused.

Gaetano Donizetti, from a lithography by (1842)

When Donizetti went to Bologna for the Stabat Mater, Rossini attended the third performance, and the two men—each former students of the —met for the first time, with Rossini declaring that Donizetti was "the only maestro in Italy capable of conducting my Stabat as I would have it".

Arriving in Vienna in the Spring of 1842 with a letter of recommendation from Rossini, Donizetti became involved in rehearsals for Linda di Chamounix which was given its premiere in May and which was a huge success. In addition, he was appointed to the chapel of the royal court, the same post which had been held by.

He left Vienna on 1 July 1842 after the Spring Italian season, travelling to Milan, Bergamo (in order to see the now-aging Mayr, but where the deterioration of his own health became more apparent), and then on to Naples in August, a city he had not visited since 1838. A contract with the San Carlo remained unresolved. Also, it appears that he wished to sell his Naples house, but could not bring himself to go through with it, such was the sorrow which remained after his wife's death in 1837.

However, on 6 September he was on his way back to Genoa from where he would leave for a three-month planned stay in Paris to be followed by time in Vienna once again. He wrote that he would work on translations of Maria Padilla and Linda di Chamounix and "God knows what else I'll do". During the time in Naples, his poor health was again a problem causing him to remain in bed for days at a time.

Delécluze by Ingres

Arriving once again in Paris in late September 1842, he accomplished the revisions to the two Italian operas and he received a suggestion from, the newly appointed director of the Théâtre-Italien, that he might compose a new opera for that house. Janin's idea was that it should be a new opera buffa and tailored to the talents of some major singers including,, and who had been hired. The result turned out to be the comic opera, , planned for January 1843. While preparations were underway, other ideas came to Donizetti and, discovering Cammarano's libretto for 's unsuccessful 1839 Il Conte di Chalais, he turned it into the first two acts of within twenty-four hours. Another opera with Scribe as librettist was in the works: it was to be , roi de Portugal planned for November 1843 in Paris.

When Don Pasquale was presented on 3 January, it was an overwhelming success with performances continuing until late March. Writing in the on 6 January, the critic proclaimed:

No opera composed expressly for the Théâtre-Italien has had a more clamorous success. Four or five numbers repeated, callings-out of the singers, callings-out of the Maestro—in sum, one of those ovations.....which in Paris are reserved for the truly great.

1843–1845: Paris to Vienna to Italy; final return to Paris[]

By 1843, Donizetti was exhibiting symptoms of and probable : "the inner man was broken, sad, and incurably sick", states Allitt. Ashbrook observes that the preoccupation with work which obsessed Donizetti in the last months of 1842 and throughout 1843 "suggests that he recognised what was wrong with him and that he wanted to compose as much as he could while he was still able" But after the success in Paris, he continued working and left once again for Vienna, arriving there by mid-January 1843.

Shortly thereafter, he wrote to Antonio Vasselli outlining his plans for that year, concluding with the somewhat ominous: "All of this with a new illness contracted in Paris, which has still not passed and for which I am awaiting your prescription" But, in the body of the letter, he lays out what he will be aiming to accomplish in 1843: in Vienna, a French drama; in Naples, a planned Ruy-Blas [but it was never composed]; in Paris for the Opéra-Comique, "a Flemish subject", and for the Opéra, "I am using a Portuguese subject in five acts" (which was to be , Roi de Portugal, and actually given on 13 November.) Finally, he adds "and first I am remounting Les Martyrs which is creating a furor in the provinces".

However, by early February, he is already writing via an intermediary to Vincenzo Flauto, then the impresario at the San Carlo in Naples, in an attempt to break his agreement to compose for that house in July. He was increasingly becoming aware of the limitations which his poor health is imposing upon him. As it turned out, he was able to revive a half-completed work which had been started for Vienna, but only after receiving a rejection to his request to be released from his Naples' obligations did he work on finishing by May for a production in Naples in January 1844, but without the composer being present. When it did appear, it was not very successful. As far as the work for the Opéra-Comique was concerned—Ne m'oubliez moi it was to be called—it appears that he was able to break his contract with that house, although he had already composed and orchestrated seven numbers.

Work in Vienna[]

Donizetti's obligations in Vienna included overseeing the annual Italian season at the which began in May. Verdi's (which Donizetti had seen in Milan at its premiere in March 1842 and with which he had been impressed) was featured as part of that season. However, his main preoccupation was to complete the orchestration of , which was accomplished by 13 February for planned performances in June. The season began with a very successful revival of Linda di Chamounix. Nabucco followed, the first production of a Verdi opera in Vienna. The season also included Don Pasquale in addition to . Finally, Maria di Rohan was given on 5 June. In reporting the reaction to this opera in a teasing letter to Antonio Vasselli in Rome, he tried to build suspense, stating that "With the utmost sorrow, I must announce to you that last evening I have given my Maria di Rohan [and he names the singers]. All their talent was not enough to save me from "a sea of [pause, space] – applause....Everything went well. Everything."

Return to Paris[]

Returning to Paris as quickly as possible, Donizetti left Vienna around 11 July 1843 in his newly purchased carriage and arrived on about 20th, immediately getting down to work on finishing Dom Sébastien, which he describes as a massive enterprise: "what a staggering spectacle.....I am terribly wearied by this enormous opera in five acts which carries bags full of music for singing and dancing." It is his longest opera as well as the one on which he spent the most time.

With rehearsals in progress at the Opéra for Dom Sébastien, the first performance being planned for 13 November, the composer was also working on readying Maria di Rohan for the on the following evening, 14 November. Both were successful, although author Herbert Weinstock states that "the older opera was an immediate, unquestioned success with both audience and critics". However, Maria di Rohan continued for 33 performances in all, whereas Dom Sébastien remained in the repertory until 1845 with a total of 32 performances.

1844: In Vienna[]

On 30 December 1843, Donizetti was back in Vienna, having delayed leaving until 20th because of illness. Ashbrook comments on how he was viewed in that city, with "friends notic[ing] an alarming change in his physical condition", and with his ability to concentrate and to simply remaining standing often being impaired.

Having entered into a contract with of the Opéra for a new work for the coming year, he found nothing to be suitable and immediately wrote to Pillet proposing that another composer take his place. While waiting to see if he could be relieved from writing a large-scale work if Mayerbeer would allow to be staged instead that autumn, he looked forward to the arrival of his brother from Turkey in May and to the prospect of them traveling to Italy together that summer. Eventually, it was agreed that his commitment to the Opéra could be postponed until November 1845.

While taking care of some of his obligations to the Viennese court, for the remainder of the month he awaited news on the outcome of the 12 January premiere of Caterina Cornaro in Naples. By 31st (or 1 February), he learned the truth: it had been a failure. What was worse were the rumours that it was not in fact Donizetti's work, although a report from Guido Zavadini suggested that it was probably a combination of elements which caused the failure, including the singers' difficulty in finding the right tone in the absence of the maestro, plus the heavily censored libretto. Primarily, however, the opera's failure appears to have been due to the maestro's absence, because he was unable to be present to oversee and control the staging, normally one of Donizetti's strengths.

The Italian season in Vienna, which included Bellini's , a revival of Linda di Chamounix and of Don Pasquale, was also to the first production there of Verdi's . Donizetti had made a promise to Giacomo Pedroni of the publishing house to oversee the production of the opera, which was given on 30 May with Donizetti conducting. The result was a very warm letter from entrusting the production to his care; it concluded: "With the most profound esteem, your most devoted servant, G. Verdi".

Summer/Autumn 1844: Travel to and within Italy[]

Antonio Dolci, Bergamo friend of Donizetti
Gaetano Donizetti's brother Giuseppe

Gaetano's brother Giuseppe, on leave from Constantinople, arrived in Vienna in early June. He had intended to leave by about 22nd, but Gaetano's bout of illness delayed his departure, and the brothers traveled together to Bergamo on about 12 or 13 July proceeding slowly but arriving around 21st.

William Ashbrook describes the second half of 1844 as a period of "pathetic restlessness". He continues: "Donizetti went to Bergamo, Lovere on Lake Iseo [about 26 miles from Bergamo], back to Bergamo, to Milan [31 July], to Genoa [with his friend Antonio Dolci, on 3 August, where they stayed until 10 August because of illness], to Naples [by steamer, from which he wrote to Vasselli in Rome explaining that the upcoming visit may be last time he would see his brother], [then] to Rome [on 14 September to see Vasselli], back to Naples [on 2 October after being invited back to Naples for the first San Carlo performances of Maria di Rohan on 11 November, which was immensely successful], to Genoa [on 14 November by boat; arrived 19th] and on to Milan again [for two days]" before reaching Bergamo on 23 November where his found his old friend Mayr to be very ill. He delayed his departure for as long as possible, but Mayr died on 2 December shortly after Donizetti had left Bergamo.

December 1844 – July 1845: Last visit to Vienna[]

Guglielmo Cottrau (1797–1847)

By 5 December he was in Vienna writing a letters to his friend Guglielmo Cottrau on 6th and again on 12th, stating "I am not well. I am in the hands of a doctor." While there were periods of relative calm, his health continued to fail him periodically and then there were relapses into depression, as expressed in a letter: "I am half-destroyed, it's a miracle that I'm still on my feet".

Writing to unnamed Paris friends on 7 February, even after the very positive reaction received at the premiere of a specially-prepared Dom Sébastien on 6 February 1845 (which he had conducted for three performances of the total of 162 given over the following years until 1884), he grumbles about the reactions of the Parisian audiences and continues with a brief report on his health which, he says, "if it is no better and this continues, I'll find myself forced to go to spend some months resting in Bergamo." At the same time, he rejected offers to compose, one offer coming from London and requiring an opera four months away; the objection of having limited time was given. Other appeals came from Paris, one directly from Vatel, the new impresario of the Théâtre-Italien, who traveled to Vienna to see the composer. As other biographers also note, there is an increasing sense that, during 1845, Donizetti became more and more aware of the real state of his health and the limitations it has begun to impose on his activities. Other letters into April and May reveal much of the same, and the fact that he did not attend the opening performance of Verdi's on 3 April, finally seeing it only at its fourth performance, confirms that.

By the end of May, no decision as what to do or where to go had been made, but—finally—he decided on Paris where he would claim a forfeit from the Opéra for the non-production of , his unfulfilled second commission from 1840 which, although still unfinished, had a completed libretto. He left Vienna for the last time on 10 July 1845.

Andrea Donizetti, nephew of composer Gaetano Donizetti, 1847

1845–1848: Return to Paris; declining health; return to Bergamo; death[]

By the time he reached Paris, Donizetti had been suffering from malaises, headaches, and nausea for decades, but had never been formally treated. In early August, he initiated a lawsuit against the Opéra which dragged on until April 1846 and in which he prevailed.

The culmination of the crisis in Donizetti's health came in August 1845 when he was diagnosed with cerebro-spinal syphilis and severe mental illness. Two doctors, including Dr. (a specialist in syphilis), recommended that, along with various remedies, he abandon work altogether and both agreed that the Italian climate would be better for his health. But letters to friends reveal two things: that he continued to work on that autumn for its performance in Paris on 16 December, and that he revealed a lot about the progression of his illness.

As his condition worsened, the composer's brother Giuseppe dispatched his son Andrea to Paris from Constantinople. Arriving there on 25 December, Andrea lodged at the Hôtel Manchester with his uncle, but immediately consulted Dr. Ricord on his uncle's condition. Ricord recorded his opinion in mid-January that, while it ultimately may be better for the composer's health for him to be in Italy, it was not advisable for him to travel until the Spring. Consulting two additional doctors as well as Dr. Ricord, Andrea received their written opinion after an examination on 28 January 1846. In summary, it stated that the doctors "believe that M. Donizetti no longer is capable of calculating sanely the significance of his decisions".


In February 1846, reluctant to consider going further towards institutionalization, he relied on the further advice of two of the doctors who had examined his uncle in late January. They stated:

We....certify that M. Gaetan (sic) Donizetti is the victim of a mental disease that brings disorder into his actions and his decisions; that it is to be desired in the interest of his preservation and his treatment that he be isolated in an establishment devoted to cerebral and intellectual maladies.
Dr. Philippe Ricord

Therefore, Andrea agreed to allow his uncle to be taken to a facility which has been described as "resemb[ling] that of a health spa.... with a central hospital more-or-less in the guise of a country house" and Donizetti left Paris by coach with Andrea, believing that they were travelling to Vienna, where he was due by 12 February to fulfill his contract. Following behind in another coach was Dr. Ricord. After three hours they arrived at the Maison Esquirol in Ivry-sur-Seine, a suburb of Paris, where an explanation involving an accident was concocted to explain the need to spend the night at a "comfortable inn". Within a few days—realizing that he was being confined—Donizetti wrote urgent letters seeking help from friends, but they were never delivered. However, evidence provided from friends who visited Donizetti over the following months, states that he was being treated very well, the facility having a reputation for the care given to its patients. Various aggressive treatment was tried; it was described as having "its successes, however fleeting".

By the end of May, Andrea had decided that his uncle would be better off in the Italian climate, and three outside physicians were called in for their opinions. Their report concluded with the advice that he leave for Italy without delay. But, as Andrea began to make plans for his uncle's journey to and upkeep in Bergamo, he was forced by the Paris Prefect of Police to have his uncle undergo another examination by other physicians appointed by the Prefect. Their conclusion was the opposite of that of the previous doctors: "we are of the opinion that the trip should be forbidden formally as offering very real dangers and being far from allowing hope of any useful result." With that, the Prefect informed Andrea that Donizetti could not be moved from Ivry. Andrea saw little use in remaining in Paris. He sought a final opinion from the three doctors practicing at the clinic, and on 30 August, they provided a lengthy report outlining step-by-step the complete physical condition of their declining patient, concluding that the rigours of travel—the jolting of the carriage, for example—could bring on new symptoms or complications impossible to treat on such a journey. Andrea left for Bergamo on 7 (or 8) September 1846 taking with him a partial score of , the completed score of , and a variety of personal effects, including jewelry.

Attempts to move Donizetti back to Paris[]

Baron Eduard von Lannoy, Lithography by Josef Kriehuber, 1837
taken on 3 August 1847: Donizetti with his nephew Andrea in Paris

In late December, early January 1847, visits from a friend from Vienna who lived in Paris—Baron Eduard von Lannoy—resulted in a letter from Lannoy to Giuseppe Donizetti in Constantinople outlining what he saw as a better solution: rather than have friends travel the five hours to see his brother, Lannoy recommended that Gaetano be moved to Paris where he could be taken care of by the same doctors. Giuseppe agreed and sent Andrea back to Paris, which he reached on 23 April. Visiting his uncle the following day, he found himself recognized. He was able to go on to convince the Paris Prefect, by threats of family action and general public concern, and the composer should be moved to an apartment in Paris. This took place on 23 June and, while there, he was able to take rides in his carriage and appeared to be much more aware of his surroundings. However, he was held under virtual house arrest by the police for several more months, although able to be visited by friends and even by Verdi while he was in Paris. Finally—on 16 August—in Constantinople, Giuseppe filed a formal complaint with the Austrian ambassador (given that the composer was an Austrian citizen).

In Paris, the police insisted on a further medical examination. Six doctors were called in and, of the six, only four approved of the travel. Then the police sent in their own doctor (who opposed the move), posted gendarmes outside the apartment, and forbade the daily carriage rides. Now desperate, Andrea then consulted three lawyers and sent detailed reports to his father in Constantinople. Finally, action taken by Count Sturmer of the Austrian Embassy in Turkey caused action to be taken from Vienna which, via the Embassy in Paris, sent a formal complaint to the French government. Within a few days, Donizetti was given permission to leave and he set out from Paris on what was to be a seventeen-day trip to Bergamo.

The final journey to Bergamo[]

Donizetti's tomb in Bergamo

Arrangements had been made well ahead of time as to where Donizetti would live when he arrived in Bergamo. In fact, on his second visit to Paris, when it appeared that his uncle would return to Italy, Andrea had agreement from the noble Scotti family for his uncle to be able to stay in their palace. The accompanying party of four consisted of Andrea, the composer's younger brother Francesco who had come specially from Bergamo for this purpose, Dr. Rendu, and a nurse-custodian Antoine Pourcelot. They traveled by train to Amiens, then on to Brussels, after which they traveled in two coaches (one of which was Donizetti's sent ahead to await the party). They crossed Belgium and Germany to Switzerland, crossing the Alps via the St Gotthard Pass, and came down into Italy arriving in Bergamo on the evening of 6 October, where they were welcomed by friends as well as the mayor.

Based on the report of the accompanying doctor, Donizetti did not appear to have suffered from the journey. He was settled comfortably in a large chair, speaking very rarely or only in occasional monosyllables, and mostly remaining detached from everyone around him. However, when Giovannina Basoni (who eventually became Baroness Scotti) played and sang arias from the composer's operas, he did appear to pay some attention. On the other hand, when the tenor Rubini visited and, together with Giovannina, sang music from Lucia di Lammermoor, Antonio Vasselli reported that there was no sign of recognition at all. This condition continued well into 1848, more or less unchanged until a serious bout of apoplexy occurred on 1 April followed by further decline and the inability to take in food. Finally, after the intense night of 7 April, Gaetano Donizetti died on the afternoon of 8 April.

Initially, Donizetti was buried in the cemetery of but in 1875 his body was transferred to Bergamo's near the grave of his teacher Simon Mayr.

Virginia Vasselli, wife of Gaetano Donizetti, c. 1820

Personal life[]

It was during the months which Donizetti spent in Rome for the production of Zoraida that he met the Vasselli family, with Antonio initially becoming a good friend. Antonio's sister Virginia was at that point only 13. However, Virginia was to become Donizetti's wife in 1828. She gave birth to three children, none of whom survived and, within a year of his parents' deaths—on 30 July 1837—she also died from what is believed to be or measles, but Ashbrook speculates that it was connected to what he describes as a "severe syphilitic infection."

By nine years, he was the younger brother of, who had become, in 1828, Instructor General of the Imperial Music at the court of Sultan (1808–1839). The youngest of the three brothers was Francesco whose life was spent entirely in Bergamo, except for a brief visit to Paris during his brother's decline. He survived him by only eight months.

Donizetti's compositions[]

Donizetti, a prolific composer, is best known for his operatic works, but he also wrote music in a number of other forms, including some church music, a number of, and some orchestral pieces. Altogether, he composed about 75 operas, 16 symphonies, 19 string quartets, 193 songs, 45 duets, 3 oratorios, 28 cantatas, instrumental concertos, sonatas, and other chamber pieces.

single frauen aus berlin
Operas: See
Choral works
Ave Maria Grande Offertorio Il sospiro Messa da Requiem Messa di Gloria e Credo Miserere (Psalm 50)
Orchestral works
Allegro for Strings in C major Larghetto, tema e variazioni in E flat major Sinfonia Concertante in D major (Dec. 1817) Sinfonia for Winds in G minor (1817) Sinfonia in A major Sinfonia in C major Sinfonia in D major (April 1818) Sinfonia in D minor
Concertino for Clarinet in B flat major Concertino for English Horn in G major (1816) Concertino in C minor for flute and chamber orchestra (1819) Concertino for Flute and Orchestra in C major Concertino for Flute and Orchestra in D major Concertino for Oboe in F major Concertino for Violin and Cello in D minor Concerto for Violin and Cello in D minor
Concerto for 2 Clarinets "Maria Padilla"
Chamber works
Andante sostenuto for Oboe and Harp in F minor Introduction for Strings in D major Larghetto and Allegro for Violin and Harp in G minor Largo/Moderato for Cello and Piano in G minor Nocturnes (4) for Winds and Strings Sonata for Flute and Harp Sonata for Flute and Piano in C major Sonata for Oboe and Piano in F major
Quintet for Guitar and Strings no 2 in C major Study for Clarinet no 1 in B flat major Trio for Flute, Bassoon and Piano in F major
Quartets for strings
String Quartet in D major No. 3 in C minor: 2nd movement, Adagio ma non troppo No. 4 in D major No. 5 in E minor No,5 in E minor: Larghetto No. 6 in G minor No. 7 in F minor No. 8 in B flat major
No. 9 in D minor No. 11 in C major No. 12 in C major No. 13 in A major No. 14 in D major No. 15 in F major No. 16 in B minor No 17 in D major
No. 18 in E minor No. 18 in E minor: Allegro
Piano works
Adagio and Allegro in G major Allegro in C major Allegro in F minor Fugue in G minor Grand Waltz in A major Larghetto in A minor "" Larghetto in C major Pastorale in E major
Presto in F minor Sinfonia in A major Sinfonia No. 1 in C major Sinfonia No. 1 in D major Sinfonia No. 2 in C major Sinfonia No. 2 in D major Sonata in C major Sonata in F major
Sonata in G major Variations in E major Variations in G major Waltz in A major Waltz in C major Waltz in C major "The Invitation"



  1. flirten am telefon mit einem mann
  2. Smart, Mary Ann; Budden, Julian.. Grove Music Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved January 9, 2017. 
  3. Allitt 1991, p. 9
  4. Osborne 1994, p. 139
  5. Weinstock 1963, p. 13
  6. ^ Black 1982, p. 1
  7. ^ Black 1982, pp. 50–51
  8. Black 1982, p. 52
  9. Ashbrook & Hibberd 2001, p. 225
  10. Weinstock 1963, pp. 5–6
  11. Mayr to the school administrators, in Weinstock, p. 6
  12. Ashbrook 1982, pp. 8–9
  13. ^ Lines from Mayr's libretto, as spoken by Donizetti in 1811, quoted in Weinstock 1963, p. 8.
  14. Ashbrook 1982, p. 9
  15. ^ Ashbrook 1982, pp. 9 ff.
  16. ^ Allitt 1991, pp. 9–11
  17. Weinstock 1963, p. 19
  18. quoted in Ashbrook 1982, p. 16
  19. Weinstock 1963, p. 22
  20. ^ Ashbrook 1982, pp. 18–19
  21. Ashbrook 1982, pp. 20–21
  22. Weinstock 1963, pp. 24–25
  23. In Osborne 1994
  24. ^ Weinstock 1963, pp. 28–32
  25. in Weinstock, pp. 28–29
  26. ^ Ashbrook 1982, p. 25
  27. Florimo's account, in Weinstock 1963, pp. 32–33
  28. in Weinstock 1963, p. 34
  29. Ashbrook 1982, p. 27
  30. in Weinstock, 1963, p. 37: Weinstock further asks the question as to why Donizetti spread "his energy and talent so thinly over so many compositions and continued to set librettos by Tottola and Giovanni Schmidt while conscious of their abysmal quality." Essentially, his answer is that the composer needed the money for his various commitments to his family, which included a younger brother and his parents.
  31. Ashbrok, 1982, p. 29
  32. Ashbrook 1982, p. 31
  33. Osborne 1994, p. 156
  34. ^ Allitt 1991, pp. 27–28
  35. The Giornali in Ashbrook 1982, p. 32
  36. Weinstock 1963, pp. 43–44
  37. Allitt 1991, pp. 28–29
  38. Ashbrook 1982, pp. 38–39
  39. ^ Allitt 1991, pp. 29–30
  40. ^ Review in the Gazzetta privilegiata, in Weinstock 1963, p. 64
  41. Weinstock 1963, Performance history, pp. 325–328. Confirmed in Osborne 1994, pp. 194–197
  42. The plot of Scott's is based on an actual incident that took place in 1669 in the area of Scotland. The real family involved were the and the libretto retains much of Scott's basic intrigue, as well as very substantial changes in terms of characters and events.
  43. ^ Mackerras, p. 29
  44. Parker and Ashbrook, p. 17
  45. Ashbrook 1982, p. 137
  46. Girardi, p. 1
  47. Allitt 1991, p. 40
  48. Allitt 1991, p. 41
  49. Weinstock 1963, p. 177: Donizetti to Vasselli, 25 July 1841, in Weinstock
  50. Rossini in Allitt 1991, p. 42
  51. Weinstock 1963, p. 184: A letter from a Doctor Galli which describes his condition
  52. Weinstock 1963, p. 186
  53. Donizetti to Antonio Dolci (a Bergamo friend), 15 September 1842, in Weinstock 1963, p. 186
  54. ^ Weinstock 1963, pp. 188 ff.
  55. Weinstock 1963, p. 195
  56. Délécluze quoted in Weinstock 1963, p. 194.
  57. Allitt 1991, p. 43
  58. ^ Ashbrook 1982, pp. 177–178
  59. ^ Donizetti to Vasselli, 30 January 1843, in Weinstock 1963, p. 196
  60. ^ Ashbrook 1982, pp. 178–179
  61. Donizetti to Mayr, 2 September 1843, in Weinstock 1963, p. 204
  62. Weinstock 1963, pp. 206–207
  63. Ashbrook 1982, p. 190
  64. Weinstock 1963, p. 217
  65. Weinstock 1963, p. 213
  66. Weinstock 1963, p. 215
  67. Verdi to Donizetti, in Weinstock 1963, p. 220
  68. Ashbrook 1982, p. 191. Further details of specific dates from Weinstock, pp. 221–224
  69. ^ Weinstock, p. 227
  70. ^ Weinstock 1963, pp. 228–229
  71. Weinstock 1963, Ch. X: August 1845 – September 1846, pp. 233–255
  72. Drs. Calmeil, Mitivié, and Ricord to Andrea Donizetti, 28 January 1846, in Weinstock 1963, p. 246
  73. Drs. Calmeil and Ricord to Andrea Donizetti, 31 January 1846, in Weinstock 1963, p. 247
  74. ^ Weatherson 2013, pp. 12–17
  75. Weatherson 2013, pp. 12–14
  76. Report of 12 June 1846, in Weinstock 1963, p. 246
  77. Report of three doctors, 10 July 1846, in Weinstock 1963, p. 243
  78. Report from Drs. Calmeil, Ricord, and Moreau to Andrea Donizetti, 30 August 1846, in Weinstock 1963, pp. 254–255
  79. Weinstock and Ashbrook provide different departure days.
  80. ^ Weinstock 1963, Ch. XI: September 1846 – April 1848, pp. 256–271
  81. Ashbrook 1982, p. 121
  82. Weinstock 1963, p. 17
  83. Weinstock 1963, p. 20


  • Allitt, John Stewart (1991), Donizetti – in the light of romanticism and the teaching of Johann Simon Mayr, Shaftesbury, Dorset, UK: Element Books. Also see
  • Allitt, John Stewart (2003), Gaetano Donizetti – Pensiero, musica, opere scelte, Milano: Edizione Villadiseriane
  • and (1980), "[Article title unknown]", The New Grove Masters of Italian Opera, London: Papermac. pp. 93–154
  • Ashbrook, William (1982), Donizetti and his Operas, Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.    
  • Ashbrook, William (with John Black); Julian Budden (1998), "Gaetano Donizetti" in (Ed.), , Vol. One. London: Macmillan Publishers, Inc.    
  • Ashbrook, Wiliam and Budden, Julian (2001), "[Article title unk.]" in Sadie, Stanley (Ed.), , Volume 7, London: Macmillan Publishers Ltd. pp. 761–796.
  • Ashbrook, William; Sarah Hibberd (2001), in (Ed.), The New Penguin Opera Guide, New York: Penguin Putnam.  .
  • Bini, Annalisa and Jeremy Commons (1997), Le prime rappresentazioni delle opere di Donizetti nella stampa coeva, Milan: Skira.
  • Black, John (1982), Donizetti's Operas in Naples 1822–1848, London: The Donizetti Society
  • Cassaro, James P. (2000), Gaetano Donizetti – A Guide to Research, New York: Garland Publishing.
  • Donati-Petténi, Giuliano (1928), L'Istituto Musicale Gaetano Donizetti. La Cappella Musicale di Santa Maria Maggiore. Il Museo Donizettiano, Bergamo: Istituto Italiano d'Arti Grafiche. (In Italian)
  • Donati-Petténi, Giuliano (1930), Donizetti, Milano: Fratelli Treves Editori. (In Italian)
  • Donati-Petténi, Giuliano (1930), L'arte della musica in Bergamo, Bergamo: Istituto Italiano d'Arti Grafiche. (In Italian)
  • (1985), "Anna Bolena" and the Artistic Maturity of Gaetano Donizetti, Oxford:.  
  • Engel, Louis (1886), From Mozart to Mario: Reminiscences of Half a Century vols. 1 & 2., London, Richard Bentley.
  • Giradi, Michele, on (in Italian)
  • Kantner, Leopold M (Ed.), Donizetti in Wien, papers from a symposium in various languages. Primo Ottocento, available from Edition Praesens.  
  • Keller, Marcello Sorce (1978), "Gaetano Donizetti: un bergamasco compositore di canzoni napoletane", Studi Donizettiani, Vol. III, pp. 100–107.
  • Keller, Marcello Sorce (1984), "Io te voglio bene assaje: a Famous Neapolitan Song Traditionally Attributed to Gaetano Donizetti", The Music Review, Vol. XLV, No. 3–4, pp. 251–264. Also published as: Io te voglio bene assaje: una famosa canzone napoletana tradizionalmente attribuita a Gaetano Donizetti, La Nuova Rivista Musicale Italiana, 1985, No. 4, pp. 642–653.
  • (1998). Lucia di Lammermoor (CD booklet). Sony Classical. pp. 29–33.  . 
  • Minden, Pieter (Ed.); Gaetano Donizetti (1797–1848) (1999), Scarsa Mercè Saranno. Duett für Alt und Tenor mit Klavierbegleitung [Partitur]. Mit dem Faksimile des Autographs von 1815. Tübingen : Noûs-Verlag. 18 pp., [13] fol.;  . [Caesar vs. Cleopatra.]
  • , (1994), The Bel Canto Operas of Rossini, Donizetti, and Bellini, Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press.  
  • Parker, Roger; William Ashbrook (1994), "Poliuto: the Critical Edition of an 'International Opera'", in booklet accompanying the 1994 recording on Ricordi.
  • Saracino, Egidio (Ed.) (1993), Tutti I libretti di Donizetti, Garzanti Editore.
  • Weatherson, Alexander, "Donizetti at Ivry: Notes from a Tragic Coda", Newsletter No. 118, Donizetti Society (London), February 2013.
  • Weinstock, Herbert (1963), Donizetti and the World of Opera in Italy, Paris and Vienna in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century, New York: Random House.
  • Zavadini, Guido (1948), Donizetti: Vita – Musiche – Epistolario, Bergamo.

External links[]

  • at
  • Online at
  • Dotto, Gabriele; Roger Parker, (General Editors), published by, Milan, with the collaboration and contribution of Fondazione Donizetti, Bergamo" online at
  • on
  • on the Manitoba Opera's website
  • on Arizona Opera website

Sheet music


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For the recently concluded season, see.

The Bachelor is an American dating and relationship reality television series that debuted on March 25, 2002, on. The show is hosted by. The show's success has resulted in several including , , , , and .



It is created and produced by and directed by Ken Fuchs. The After The Final Rose and other reunion specials are produced at Victory Studios in.

The series revolves around a single former bachelor (deemed eligible) who starts with a pool of romantic interests (typically 25) from whom the bachelor is expected to select a wife or husband. During the course of the season, the bachelor eliminates candidates (see ), with the bachelor typically proposing marriage to his final selection. The participants travel to romantic and exotic locations for their adventures, and the conflicts in the series, both internal and external, stem from the elimination-style format of the show.

The above description is a general guideline. In practice, the show does not always follow its designed structure, and those variations are often a source of drama and conflict.

  • A candidate who was eliminated returns to the show to plead her case to the bachelor.
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  • A bachelor eliminates a woman outside of the normal elimination process. For example, the bachelor may eliminate both women in a two-on-one date.
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Season six was the first and only season to feature a twist in casting. Since producers could not decide between and Jay Overbye as the next Bachelor, the 25 women at the time participating had to decide which bachelor would make the best husband. In the end of first episode, Velvick was chosen.

Three notable cases where the bachelor violated the premise of the show are, who selected neither of his final two women;, who in the After the Final Rose episode broke off his engagement and several months later proposed (off-screen) to the first runner-up (the two are now married); and, who also broke off his engagement and during the After the Final Rose he subsequently proposed to the first runner-up.


For the first two weeks of filming, the contestants stay in "Villa De La Vina," a 7,590-square-foot (705 m2), six-bedroom, nine-bath home in. The custom home, built in 2005, is located on 10 acres at 2351 Kanan Road. As of October 10, 2008, the home was listed for sale at a price of US$8.75 million. The final third of the episodes within a season are filmed traveling the world. Episodes have been filmed throughout the United States, Canada, England, New Zealand, Vietnam, Thailand, and Korea to name just a few. The Agoura Hills, California mansion has not been used on several occasions, including during season 7- where filming took place in New York City, home of ; Paris, France and North Carolina for season 8; and Rome, Italy- where, who is half Italian, lived- for season 9.

The elimination process[]

On each Bachelor episode, the bachelor interacts with the women and presents a rose to each woman he wishes to remain on the show. Those who do not receive a rose are eliminated. Eliminations are based upon the bachelor's personal feelings about each contestant, guided primarily by the impression made by each woman during dates or other events of the week. Most roses are presented at a rose ceremony at the end of each episode, but roses can also be bestowed on dates. Typical activities include

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  • A two-on-one date, in which the bachelor and two women go on a date. At the end of the date, the bachelor must decide which woman receives a rose. The woman who does not receive a rose is eliminated immediately.

If a rose is at stake on a date, the participating women pack their suitcases in case they fail to receive a rose. The other women learn that a woman has been eliminated when that woman's suitcase is taken away by a crew member.

  • Except in the late stages of the season, the episode concludes with a, to which the bachelor and all women not yet eliminated are invited. At the first cocktail party of the season, the bachelor presents a "first impression rose"; roses are typically not presented at any other cocktail parties.
  • Every episode concludes with a rose ceremony which has its own conventions.
    • The women who have not been eliminated stand in rows at one end of the room, and the bachelor faces them. The bachelor has a tray with roses.
    • The bachelor takes a rose and calls a woman by name. The woman steps forward, and the bachelor asks, "Will you accept this rose?" The woman accepts, takes the rose, and returns to her original position.
    • When there is one rose remaining, host Chris Harrison says, "Ladies, this is the final rose tonight," then tells the bachelor, "When you're ready."
    • After all roses are distributed, host Chris Harrison tells the women who did not receive a rose to "take a moment and say your good-byes."

The final episodes of each season traditionally follow this pattern:

  • The bachelor visits the home towns and families of each of the four remaining women. At the rose ceremony, one woman is eliminated, leaving three.
  • The bachelor and the three remaining women travel to an exotic location for a series of one-on-one dates. At the conclusion of each date, the bachelor offers the woman the keys to the fantasy suite which allows the two to spend the night together without cameras present. At the rose ceremony, one woman is eliminated, leaving two.
  • In a "The Women Tell All" episode, the women who had been eliminated from the show participate in a talk show where they discuss their thoughts and experiences.
  • The two remaining women separately meet with the bachelor's family. At the end of the episode, the bachelor proposes to one of the women by presenting the "final rose".
  • In an "After the Final Rose" episode which immediately follows, the bachelor, the finalist, and the runner-up participate in a talk show. The identity of the next season's bachelor or bachelorette is often announced at the end of the episode.

A woman may withdraw from the competition at any time if she finds herself no longer interested in the bachelor. On rare occasions, a woman is removed from the show for breaking one of the rules.

The bachelor has wide discretion in choosing how many and when to present the roses. For example, Sean Lowe presented several roses at his initial cocktail party.

It is common to accuse a contestant of not being on the show "for the right reasons", meaning that her aim is not to establish a relationship with the bachelor, but rather to garner publicity for her own career, induce jealousy in an ex-boyfriend, become selected as the next, or simply to get a free trip to exotic locations.


# Original run Bachelor Number of contestants Winner Runner(s)-up Proposal Still together Relationship notes
March 25–April 25, 2002 25 Amanda Marsh No No Michel did not propose to Marsh, but instead they entered into a relationship. Marsh and Michel broke up after several months. Marsh is now married to her childhood friend, Jay Caldwell, and they have a daughter named Chloe.
September 25–November 20, 2002 Helene Eksterowicz Brooke Smith Yes No Buerge and Eksterowicz broke up after several weeks. Buerge became engaged to Angye McIntosh and married in 2009. They have a daughter named Aven. In 2013, Eksterowicz married senior technology consultant Andrew Goodman and they have one child together.
3 March 24–May 21, 2003 Jen Schefft Kirsten Buschbacher Yes No Schefft and Firestone broke up after several months but remained friends. He is now married to actress and they have three children together: sons Adam and Shane and daughter Anja.
4 September 24–November 20, 2003 Estella Gardinier Kelly Jo Kuharski No No Guiney did not propose to Gardinier but she accepted a promise ring indicating that they would still date. They broke up shortly after the show aired. Guiney later married soap opera star, but they split after five years of marriage. Guiney has been married to Jessica Canyon since November 2016.
April 7–May 26, 2004 Canada Jessica Bowlin Tara Huckeby No No Palmer did not propose to Bowlin. They continued to date but broke up several weeks later. Bowlin is now married to Omar Rawi and they have two children together.
6 September 22–November 24, 2004 27 Cuba Mary Delgado Tanya Michel Yes No Velvick and Jay Overbye started as two candidate bachelors. The women competing had to vote on which man they would like to be the bachelor. Velvick ended up winning the vote. Velvick and Delgado split after five years. Velvick is now married to Belinda Juarez, while Delgado is now married to James Kordomenos.
7 March 28–May 16, 2005 25 Sarah Bryce Krisily Kennedy No No O'Connell chose Bryce to be the winner but did not propose to her and instead began a relationship. They broke up in September 2007, but got back together in 2008. However, they called it quits again in 2010. Bryce is now married to Brandt Calver and they have three children together.
8 January 9–February 27, 2006 Sarah Stone Moana Dixon No No Stork did not propose to Stone. Instead, they began a relationship. They broke up shortly after the show aired. Stork is now featured on and was married to pediatrician Charlotte Brown, but they divorced after three years of marriage. Stone is now married to Brock Smith and they have three daughters together.
October 2–November 27, 2006 Italy 27 Jennifer Wilson Sadie Murray No No Borghese did not propose to Wilson. They entered into a relationship, and broke up in January 2007. He immediately dated Murray, the runner-up, and broke up in March of that same year. Wilson is now married to Lee Gerschultz.
April 2–May 22, 2007 25 Tessa Horst Bevin Nicole Powers Yes No Horst and Baldwin called off their engagement one month after the finale, but continued their relationship. They broke off the relationship in September 2007. Horst is now married to Tom Pickard and they have a son together.
September 24–November 20, 2007 None &
Jenni Croft
No No Womack chose Croft and Pappas as the two finalists, but they were both rejected in the season's finale.
March 17–May 12, 2008 United Kingdom Chelsea Wanstrath Yes No Grant and Lamas broke up in July 2008 as they felt their lives were going in different directions, but stated they would remain close friends. Lamas is now married to Internet personality and they have two children together, a boy and a girl. Grant is now married to Rebecca Moring.
January 5–March 3, 2009 Molly Malaney Yes No On the season's finale, Mesnick had called off the engagement with Rycroft, and resumed a relationship with runner-up Malaney. Rycroft is now married to Tye Strickland, and they have three children together, daughter Ava and sons Beckett and Cayson. Mesnick would later propose to Malaney in New Zealand, which she accepted and were married on February 27, 2010, in California. Mesnick and Malaney's wedding aired on national television on March 8, 2010. The couple welcomed their first child, Riley, in March 2013.
January 4–March 1, 2010 Vienna Girardi Yes No Pavelka and Girardi ended their relationship in June 2010. They later appeared in the second season of .
January 3–March 14, 2011 Brad Womack 30 Chantal O'Brien Yes No Womack and Maynard broke up while their season was airing, but got back together after the show's finale. However, they called it quits for good in May 2011 but remained friends.
January 2–March 12, 2012 Ben Flajnik 25 Courtney Robertson Lindzi Cox Yes No Flajnik and Robertson originally broke up in February 2012 while their season was airing. However, they were later reconciled and got engaged for the second time, but broke up again in October 2012 for good.
January 7–March 11, 2013 26 Lindsay Yenter Yes Yes Lowe and Giudici married on January 26, 2014. They welcomed their first child, Samuel, on July 2, 2016. They are expecting their second child in 2018.
January 6–March 10, 2014 Venezuela 27 Nikki Ferrell Clare Crawley No No Galavis did not propose to Ferrell, but instead they decided to continue their relationship. They later appeared on . In October 2014, they decided to end their relationship after months of fighting. Ferrell married longtime friend Tyler Vanloo on October 8, 2016. Galavis married former in August 2017.
January 5–March 9, 2015 30 Whitney Bischoff Becca Tilley Yes No Though the season ended with Soules proposing to Bischoff, the couple announced that they had called off the engagement on May 28, 2015. Bischoff is now married to fellow Chicagoan resident Ricky Angel.
January 4–March 14, 2016 Ben Higgins 28 Lauren Bushnell Yes No Higgins and Bushnell had their own reality show Ben and Lauren: Happily Ever After?. They also hosted a wedding show special. The two announced their breakup on May 15, 2017.
January 2–March 13, 2017 30 Canada Vanessa Grimaldi Raven Gates Yes No Viall and Grimaldi announced their breakup on August 25, 2017.
January 1–March 6, 2018 29 Lauren Burnham Yes No On the live season finale, it was revealed that a few weeks after filming wrapped, Luyendyk had called off his engagement to Kufrin. He subsequently decided to give another chance on his relationship with runner-up Burnham. The two are engaged during the After the Final Rose special.
  1. Mesnick and Rycroft were no longer together after the show. He married the runner-up, Molly Malaney, and they are still together.
  2. Luyendyk and Kufrin were no longer together after the show. He got engaged to the runner-up, Lauren Burnham, and they are still together.


Season Timeslot () Premiered Ended TV season Avg. Viewers
(in millions)
Date Premiere
(in millions)
Date Finale
(in millions)
After the Final Rose
(in millions)
Monday 9:00 pm March 25, 2002 April 25, 2002 10.7 44
Wednesday 9:00 pm September 25, 2002 November 20, 2002 13.93 20
3 March 24, 2003 May 21, 2003
4 September 24, 2003 November 20, 2003 12.53 23
5 April 7, 2004 May 26, 2004
6 September 22, 2004 November 24, 2004 8.53 62
7 Monday 9:00 pm March 28, 2005 May 16, 2005
Monday 10:00 pm January 9, 2006 February 27, 2006 9.3 53
Monday 9:00 pm October 2, 2006 November 27, 2006 8.5 61
Monday 9:30 pm April 2, 2007 May 22, 2007 10.3 41
Monday 10:00 pm September 24, 2007 9.57 November 20, 2007 11.61 9.72 49
Monday 10:00 pm March 17, 2008 May 12, 2008 7.90 80
Monday 8:00 pm January 5, 2009 8.74 March 3, 2009 15.48 17.47 11.53 24
January 4, 2010 9.50 March 1, 2010 15.15 13.91 12.22 23
January 3, 2011 9.04 March 14, 2011 13.88 13.96 10.79 35
January 2, 2012 7.78 March 12, 2012 9.23 9.87 8.85 49
January 7, 2013 6.92 March 11, 2013 10.42 10.81 9.48 41
January 6, 2014 8.65 March 10, 2014 10.10 10.97 9.59 32
January 5, 2015 7.76 March 9, 2015 9.68 9.68 9.68 46
January 4, 2016 7.55 March 16, 2016 9.58 9.24 9.53 41
January 2, 2017 6.62 March 13, 2017 8.40 7.85 9.00 33
January 1, 2018 5.48 March 6, 2018 7.94 7.77
  1. ^ Between the 2002 to 2005 TV season rankings, the two seasons are listed together in the final rankings together in The Bachelor.
  2. Three episodes aired on February 6, 13 and 27, with the first airing at the earlier time of 9:00 pm and the second at the regular time.
  3. Two episodes had seventy-five minute airings started at 9:45 pm between April 2 and April 30 due to overtime the live show of .
  4. Two episodes had ninety-minute airings between September 24 and October 8, with the first one-third of airing at the earlier time at 9:30 pm and the second one-thirds aired in the regular time.
  5. Two episodes had irregular time airings (late as after 9:30 pm) between March 17 and March 31. The second one-thirds aired in the regular time.
  6. This episode aired for 120 minutes the next day. All previous years' After the Final Rose special aired for 60 minutes immediately after the finale.


The show's success has led producer to create multiple spin-offs, including , in which the format is gender-reversed. The bachelorettes are eliminated contestants from The Bachelor. Season 11 of The Bachelorette had two bachelorettes (but only for the first episode).

On August 9, 2010, premiered, giving previous contestants of both The Bachelor and The Bachelorette the opportunity to compete in dating-themed eliminations for $250,000.

On August 4, 2014, premiered, giving previous contestants of both The Bachelor and The Bachelorette the opportunity to compete for another chance in love in dating-themed eliminations. The series went on to have a spin-off of its own, , which also serves as a spin-off to The Bachelor and it premiered on August 3, 2015.

The fourth season of Bachelor in Paradise called into question the future of its production following an issue of possible misconduct on the set. The fourth season premiered on August 8, 2017. Two contestants, Corinne Olympios and DeMario Jackson were involved in an explicit sexual encounter in the pool during the filming of the show and were caught on tape. A producer onset administered a complaint which stated either one or both contestants may have been too drunk to give proper consent for the sexual encounter. This prompted to start an internal investigation and both contestants to seek legal counsel. Production of the show was halted on June 11, 2017 and all contestants were asked to go home until further notice. Allegations were made against both contestants about their intoxication and actions thereafter, but ended with broadcast statements from both contestants during a talk show that it was all a misunderstanding and the two have remained friends since the incident. The show was given the green light to resume filming on June 21, 2017, neither Olympios nor Jackson returned to production.

The weddings of (the 1st Bachelorette), (13th Bachelor), Ashley Hebert (the 7th Bachelorette), and (the 17th Bachelor) were broadcast as television specials. Rehn's vow-renewal ceremony upon her 10-year anniversary was also broadcast. Bachelor in Paradise season 2 couple, Jade Roper and Tanner Tolbert's wedding was also broadcast as television special in February 2016.

On January 4, 2016, Bachelor Live, a one-hour after show premiered, hosted by Chris Harrison.

First airing in October 2016, Ben and Lauren: Happily Ever After? showcased the relationship of Ben Higgins and Lauren Bushnell following season 20 of The Bachelor on their plans for marriage and Bushnell's new life in Denver. But then, the couple eventually parted ways in May 15, 2017.

On March 20, 2017, The Twins: Happily Ever After premiered. The series stars Haley and Emily Ferguson from season 20 of The Bachelor and showcases them "saying goodbye to the comfort and luxuries of living under their mom's roof and beginning the hilarious journey of figuring out life on their own while searching for independence and a new career."

premiered on February 13, 2018. The show follows a similar premise to that of with a few twists. One stand out twist is that the cast is made up of international contestants from The Bachelor Franchise. All contestants participate in various winter sports in order to win a date card. Ashley Iaconetti (American) and Kevin Wendt (Canadian) were the winning couple of the first season, after competing in an ice skating dance routine against three other couples.

Questions of authenticity[]

On February 26, 2009, in an exclusive interview between The Bachelor season 13 contestant Megan Parris, and Steve Carbone, Megan commented that the producers edit the footage to create a fictional storyline. "I don't think [the producers] showed any real conversation I had with anyone... The viewers fail to realize that editing is what makes the show... You'll hear someone make one comment and then they'll show a clip of somebody's face to make it look like that is their facial reaction to that statement, but really, somebody made that face the day before to something else. It's just piecing things together to make a story."

On March 26, 2009, Megan Parris argued that not only was the show scripted, but that producers bullied contestants into saying things to the camera that contestants did not want to say. "There's nothing real about it," she said of the show's trademark "confessionals," in which contestants talk to the camera about the latest goings-on. "It is scripted," she said. "They basically will call you names, berate you, curse at you until they get you to say what they want you to say." Both ABC and Warner Bros., the studio that produces The Bachelor, had no comment.

On March 15, 2010, Mike Fleiss appeared on 20/20 and said that he develops contestants into characters that will cater to his audience's tastes and that they "need [their] fair share of villains every season." Fleiss has come under fire for admitting that The Bachelor has less to do with reality than it does making good television.

On February 24, 2012, during the taping of The Women Tell All episode of The Bachelor, a private conversation between contestant Courtney Robertson and a show producer went public when microphones were accidentally left on in between camera takes. The conversation revealed the producer's role as a coach encouraging Robertson to fake certain emotions for the camera.

The audience reactions for The Women Tell All episode are pre-recorded and inserted into the show later.


In December 2011, a producer of The Bachelor sued Steve Carbone, a -born, -raised Internet enthusiast from and proprietor of the website, for leaking unreleased information about the show, claiming Carbone encouraged contestants of both The Bachelor and The Bachelorette to break their confidentiality agreements. Carbone has denied that the source of the leaks are current contestants. Despite being settled, there were two further lawsuits against Carbone in 2012 and in 2017, respectively.[]

International versions[]

     An upcoming season
     No longer airing
Country Name Host Network Date premiered
  September 8, 2013
  Fábio Arruda November 21, 2014
  October 3, 2012
The Bachelor
Qiu Qiming
(Internet channel)
October 1, 2016
  Bachelor, le gentleman célibataire (2003-2005)
Grégory Ascher (2013–2016)
Matthieu Delormeau (2017–present)
May 7, 2003
  Suomen unelmien poikamies Sami Kuronen February 2008
  Arne Jessen
November 19, 2003
January 4, 2011
 , State of எங்க வீட்டு மாப்பிள்ளை
February 20, 2018
  The Bachelor Indonesia 2018
Guy Geyor 2009
  Cristina Parodi June 26, 2003
The Bachelor Japan
Kouji Imada 2017
  Mike Puru March 17, 2015
  Ungkaren Christopher Dons 2003
  Kawaler do wzięcia Krzysztof Banaszyk October 8, 2003
  Lucian Marinescu (1)
June 8, 2010
Petr Fadeev
March 10, 2013
   3+ October 30, 2013
  Sanjski moški September 2004
  Jeremy Milnes

March 30, 2003
August 19, 2011
Thailand The Bachelor Thailand ศึกรัก...สละโสด
The Bachelor Thailand (Bachelor...Battle of Love)
Natpawin Kulkanlayadee August 27, 2016
Hryhoriy Reshetnyk March 17, 2011
  The Bachelor Vietnam - Anh chàng độc thân TBA TBA 2017

Note: Reruns of the original American version is also broadcast in at.


The novelty of the show makes it a ripe target for parody.

produced a web spoof of the series entitled .

Late night talk show host also created a parody called "The Baby Bachelor" in , which the titular role is given to his 3-year-old nephew Wesley.

The Fox network produced a show, , based on the premise that the bachelor was a millionaire heir, when in reality, he was not.

On June 1, 2015, Lifetime began airing , a scripted drama about a producer who works on Everlasting. It is based on 's short film Sequin Raze and her experience as a field producer on The Bachelor.

On All Stars Season 3 Episode 3, the main challenge consisted of a parody called "The B*tchelor" where guest judge played the Bachelor while the drag contestants portrayed the romantic interests.

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